Release: 1.2.19 legacy version | Release Date: April 15, 2019

SQLAlchemy 1.2 Documentation

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Source code for examples.postgis.postgis

import binascii

from sqlalchemy import event
from sqlalchemy import Table
from sqlalchemy.sql import expression
from sqlalchemy.sql import type_coerce
from sqlalchemy.types import UserDefinedType

# Python datatypes


class GisElement(object):
    """Represents a geometry value."""

    def __str__(self):
        return self.desc

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s at 0x%x; %r>" % (
            self.__class__.__name__,
            id(self),
            self.desc,
        )


class BinaryGisElement(GisElement, expression.Function):
    """Represents a Geometry value expressed as binary."""

    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data
        expression.Function.__init__(
            self, "ST_GeomFromEWKB", data, type_=Geometry(coerce_="binary")
        )

    @property
    def desc(self):
        return self.as_hex

    @property
    def as_hex(self):
        return binascii.hexlify(self.data)


class TextualGisElement(GisElement, expression.Function):
    """Represents a Geometry value expressed as text."""

    def __init__(self, desc, srid=-1):
        self.desc = desc
        expression.Function.__init__(
            self, "ST_GeomFromText", desc, srid, type_=Geometry
        )


# SQL datatypes.


class Geometry(UserDefinedType):
    """Base PostGIS Geometry column type."""

    name = "GEOMETRY"

    def __init__(self, dimension=None, srid=-1, coerce_="text"):
        self.dimension = dimension
        self.srid = srid
        self.coerce = coerce_

    class comparator_factory(UserDefinedType.Comparator):
        """Define custom operations for geometry types."""

        # override the __eq__() operator
        def __eq__(self, other):
            return self.op("~=")(other)

        # add a custom operator
        def intersects(self, other):
            return self.op("&&")(other)

        # any number of GIS operators can be overridden/added here
        # using the techniques above.

    def _coerce_compared_value(self, op, value):
        return self

    def get_col_spec(self):
        return self.name

    def bind_expression(self, bindvalue):
        if self.coerce == "text":
            return TextualGisElement(bindvalue)
        elif self.coerce == "binary":
            return BinaryGisElement(bindvalue)
        else:
            assert False

    def column_expression(self, col):
        if self.coerce == "text":
            return func.ST_AsText(col, type_=self)
        elif self.coerce == "binary":
            return func.ST_AsBinary(col, type_=self)
        else:
            assert False

    def bind_processor(self, dialect):
        def process(value):
            if isinstance(value, GisElement):
                return value.desc
            else:
                return value

        return process

    def result_processor(self, dialect, coltype):
        if self.coerce == "text":
            fac = TextualGisElement
        elif self.coerce == "binary":
            fac = BinaryGisElement
        else:
            assert False

        def process(value):
            if value is not None:
                return fac(value)
            else:
                return value

        return process

    def adapt(self, impltype):
        return impltype(
            dimension=self.dimension, srid=self.srid, coerce_=self.coerce
        )


# other datatypes can be added as needed.


class Point(Geometry):
    name = "POINT"


class Curve(Geometry):
    name = "CURVE"


class LineString(Curve):
    name = "LINESTRING"


# ... etc.


# DDL integration
# PostGIS historically has required AddGeometryColumn/DropGeometryColumn
# and other management methods in order to create PostGIS columns.  Newer
# versions don't appear to require these special steps anymore.  However,
# here we illustrate how to set up these features in any case.


def setup_ddl_events():
    @event.listens_for(Table, "before_create")
    def before_create(target, connection, **kw):
        dispatch("before-create", target, connection)

    @event.listens_for(Table, "after_create")
    def after_create(target, connection, **kw):
        dispatch("after-create", target, connection)

    @event.listens_for(Table, "before_drop")
    def before_drop(target, connection, **kw):
        dispatch("before-drop", target, connection)

    @event.listens_for(Table, "after_drop")
    def after_drop(target, connection, **kw):
        dispatch("after-drop", target, connection)

    def dispatch(event, table, bind):
        if event in ("before-create", "before-drop"):
            regular_cols = [
                c for c in table.c if not isinstance(c.type, Geometry)
            ]
            gis_cols = set(table.c).difference(regular_cols)
            table.info["_saved_columns"] = table.c

            # temporarily patch a set of columns not including the
            # Geometry columns
            table.columns = expression.ColumnCollection(*regular_cols)

            if event == "before-drop":
                for c in gis_cols:
                    bind.execute(
                        select(
                            [
                                func.DropGeometryColumn(
                                    "public", table.name, c.name
                                )
                            ],
                            autocommit=True,
                        )
                    )

        elif event == "after-create":
            table.columns = table.info.pop("_saved_columns")
            for c in table.c:
                if isinstance(c.type, Geometry):
                    bind.execute(
                        select(
                            [
                                func.AddGeometryColumn(
                                    table.name,
                                    c.name,
                                    c.type.srid,
                                    c.type.name,
                                    c.type.dimension,
                                )
                            ],
                            autocommit=True,
                        )
                    )
        elif event == "after-drop":
            table.columns = table.info.pop("_saved_columns")


setup_ddl_events()


# illustrate usage
if __name__ == "__main__":
    from sqlalchemy import (
        create_engine,
        MetaData,
        Column,
        Integer,
        String,
        func,
        select,
    )
    from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker
    from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

    engine = create_engine(
        "postgresql://scott:tiger@localhost/test", echo=True
    )
    metadata = MetaData(engine)
    Base = declarative_base(metadata=metadata)

    class Road(Base):
        __tablename__ = "roads"

        road_id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
        road_name = Column(String)
        road_geom = Column(Geometry(2))

    metadata.drop_all()
    metadata.create_all()

    session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)()

    # Add objects.  We can use strings...
    session.add_all(
        [
            Road(
                road_name="Jeff Rd",
                road_geom="LINESTRING(191232 243118,191108 243242)",
            ),
            Road(
                road_name="Geordie Rd",
                road_geom="LINESTRING(189141 244158,189265 244817)",
            ),
            Road(
                road_name="Paul St",
                road_geom="LINESTRING(192783 228138,192612 229814)",
            ),
            Road(
                road_name="Graeme Ave",
                road_geom="LINESTRING(189412 252431,189631 259122)",
            ),
            Road(
                road_name="Phil Tce",
                road_geom="LINESTRING(190131 224148,190871 228134)",
            ),
        ]
    )

    # or use an explicit TextualGisElement
    # (similar to saying func.GeomFromText())
    r = Road(
        road_name="Dave Cres",
        road_geom=TextualGisElement(
            "LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322)", -1
        ),
    )
    session.add(r)

    # pre flush, the TextualGisElement represents the string we sent.
    assert str(r.road_geom) == "LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322)"

    session.commit()

    # after flush and/or commit, all the TextualGisElements
    # become PersistentGisElements.
    assert str(r.road_geom) == "LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322)"

    r1 = session.query(Road).filter(Road.road_name == "Graeme Ave").one()

    # illustrate the overridden __eq__() operator.

    # strings come in as TextualGisElements
    r2 = (
        session.query(Road)
        .filter(Road.road_geom == "LINESTRING(189412 252431,189631 259122)")
        .one()
    )

    r3 = session.query(Road).filter(Road.road_geom == r1.road_geom).one()

    assert r1 is r2 is r3

    # core usage just fine:

    road_table = Road.__table__
    stmt = select([road_table]).where(
        road_table.c.road_geom.intersects(r1.road_geom)
    )
    print(session.execute(stmt).fetchall())

    # TODO: for some reason the auto-generated labels have the internal
    # replacement strings exposed, even though PG doesn't complain

    # look up the hex binary version, using SQLAlchemy casts
    as_binary = session.scalar(
        select([type_coerce(r.road_geom, Geometry(coerce_="binary"))])
    )
    assert as_binary.as_hex == (
        "01020000000200000000000000b832084100000000"
        "e813104100000000283208410000000088601041"
    )

    # back again, same method !
    as_text = session.scalar(
        select([type_coerce(as_binary, Geometry(coerce_="text"))])
    )
    assert as_text.desc == "LINESTRING(198231 263418,198213 268322)"

    session.rollback()

    metadata.drop_all()