Release: 1.4.0b1 beta release | Release Date: November 2, 2020

SQLAlchemy 1.4 Documentation

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Source code for examples.extending_query.filter_public

"""Illustrates a global criteria applied to entities of a particular type.

The example here is the "public" flag, a simple boolean that indicates
the rows are part of a publicly viewable subcategory.  Rows that do not
include this flag are not shown unless a special option is passed to the
query.

Uses for this kind of recipe include tables that have "soft deleted" rows
marked as "deleted" that should be skipped, rows that have access control rules
that should be applied on a per-request basis, etc.


"""

from sqlalchemy import Boolean
from sqlalchemy import Column
from sqlalchemy import event
from sqlalchemy import orm
from sqlalchemy import true
from sqlalchemy.orm import Session


@event.listens_for(Session, "do_orm_execute")
def _add_filtering_criteria(execute_state):
    """Intercept all ORM queries.   Add a with_loader_criteria option to all
    of them.

    This option applies to SELECT queries and adds a global WHERE criteria
    (or as appropriate ON CLAUSE criteria for join targets)
    to all objects of a certain class or superclass.

    """

    # the with_loader_criteria automatically applies itself to
    # relationship loads as well including lazy loads.   So if this is
    # a relationship load, assume the option was set up from the top level
    # query.

    if (
        not execute_state.is_relationship_load
        and not execute_state.execution_options.get("include_private", False)
    ):
        execute_state.statement = execute_state.statement.options(
            orm.with_loader_criteria(
                HasPrivate,
                lambda cls: cls.public == true(),
                include_aliases=True,
            )
        )


class HasPrivate(object):
    """Mixin that identifies a class as having private entities"""

    public = Column(Boolean, nullable=False)


if __name__ == "__main__":

    from sqlalchemy import Integer, Column, String, ForeignKey, Boolean
    from sqlalchemy import select
    from sqlalchemy import create_engine
    from sqlalchemy.orm import relationship, sessionmaker
    from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

    Base = declarative_base()

    class User(HasPrivate, Base):
        __tablename__ = "user"

        id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
        name = Column(String)
        addresses = relationship("Address", back_populates="user")

    class Address(HasPrivate, Base):
        __tablename__ = "address"

        id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
        email = Column(String)
        user_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey("user.id"))

        user = relationship("User", back_populates="addresses")

    engine = create_engine("sqlite://", echo=True)
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)

    Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine, future=True)

    sess = Session()

    sess.add_all(
        [
            User(
                name="u1",
                public=True,
                addresses=[
                    Address(email="u1a1", public=True),
                    Address(email="u1a2", public=True),
                ],
            ),
            User(
                name="u2",
                public=True,
                addresses=[
                    Address(email="u2a1", public=False),
                    Address(email="u2a2", public=True),
                ],
            ),
            User(
                name="u3",
                public=False,
                addresses=[
                    Address(email="u3a1", public=False),
                    Address(email="u3a2", public=False),
                ],
            ),
            User(
                name="u4",
                public=False,
                addresses=[
                    Address(email="u4a1", public=False),
                    Address(email="u4a2", public=True),
                ],
            ),
            User(
                name="u5",
                public=True,
                addresses=[
                    Address(email="u5a1", public=True),
                    Address(email="u5a2", public=False),
                ],
            ),
        ]
    )

    sess.commit()

    # now querying Address or User objects only gives us the public ones
    for u1 in sess.query(User).options(orm.selectinload(User.addresses)):
        assert u1.public

        # the addresses collection will also be "public only", which works
        # for all relationship loaders including joinedload
        for address in u1.addresses:
            assert address.public

    # works for columns too
    cols = (
        sess.query(User.id, Address.id)
        .join(User.addresses)
        .order_by(User.id, Address.id)
        .all()
    )
    assert cols == [(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 4), (5, 9)]

    cols = (
        sess.query(User.id, Address.id)
        .join(User.addresses)
        .order_by(User.id, Address.id)
        .execution_options(include_private=True)
        .all()
    )
    assert cols == [
        (1, 1),
        (1, 2),
        (2, 3),
        (2, 4),
        (3, 5),
        (3, 6),
        (4, 7),
        (4, 8),
        (5, 9),
        (5, 10),
    ]

    # count all public addresses
    assert sess.query(Address).count() == 5

    # count all addresses public and private
    assert (
        sess.query(Address).execution_options(include_private=True).count()
        == 10
    )

    # load an Address that is public, but its parent User is private
    # (2.0 style query)
    a1 = sess.execute(select(Address).filter_by(email="u4a2")).scalar()

    # assuming the User isn't already in the Session, it returns None
    assert a1.user is None

    # however, if that user is present in the session, then a many-to-one
    # does a simple get() and it will be present
    sess.expire(a1, ["user"])
    u1 = sess.execute(
        select(User)
        .filter_by(name="u4")
        .execution_options(include_private=True)
    ).scalar()
    assert a1.user is u1