Source code for examples.association.dict_of_sets_with_default

"""An advanced association proxy example which
illustrates nesting of association proxies to produce multi-level Python
collections, in this case a dictionary with string keys and sets of integers
as values, which conceal the underlying mapped classes.

This is a three table model which represents a parent table referencing a
dictionary of string keys and sets as values, where each set stores a
collection of integers. The association proxy extension is used to hide the
details of this persistence. The dictionary also generates new collections
upon access of a non-existent key, in the same manner as Python's
"collections.defaultdict" object.


import operator

from sqlalchemy import Column
from sqlalchemy import create_engine
from sqlalchemy import ForeignKey
from sqlalchemy import Integer
from sqlalchemy import String
from sqlalchemy.ext.associationproxy import association_proxy
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy.orm import relationship
from sqlalchemy.orm import Session
from sqlalchemy.orm.collections import KeyFuncDict

class Base:
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)

Base = declarative_base(cls=Base)

class GenDefaultCollection(KeyFuncDict):
    def __missing__(self, key):
        self[key] = b = B(key)
        return b

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = "a"
    associations = relationship(
        collection_class=lambda: GenDefaultCollection(

    collections = association_proxy("associations", "values")
    """Bridge the association from 'associations' over to the 'values'
    association proxy of B.

class B(Base):
    __tablename__ = "b"
    a_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey(""), nullable=False)
    elements = relationship("C", collection_class=set)
    key = Column(String)

    values = association_proxy("elements", "value")
    """Bridge the association from 'elements' over to the
    'value' element of C."""

    def __init__(self, key, values=None):
        self.key = key
        if values:
            self.values = values

class C(Base):
    __tablename__ = "c"
    b_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey(""), nullable=False)
    value = Column(Integer)

    def __init__(self, value):
        self.value = value

if __name__ == "__main__":
    engine = create_engine("sqlite://", echo=True)
    session = Session(engine)

    # only "A" is referenced explicitly.  Using "collections",
    # we deal with a dict of key/sets of integers directly.

    session.add_all([A(collections={"1": {1, 2, 3}})])

    a1 = session.query(A).first()

    a1.collections["2"].update([7, 8, 9])