Column Loading Options

About this Document

This section presents additional options regarding the loading of columns. The mappings used include columns that would store large string values for which we may want to limit when they are loaded.

View the ORM setup for this page. Some of the examples below will redefine the Book mapper to modify some of the column definitions.

Limiting which Columns Load with Column Deferral

Column deferral refers to ORM mapped columns that are omitted from a SELECT statement when objects of that type are queried. The general rationale here is performance, in cases where tables have seldom-used columns with potentially large data values, as fully loading these columns on every query may be time and/or memory intensive. SQLAlchemy ORM offers a variety of ways to control the loading of columns when entities are loaded.

Most examples in this section are illustrating ORM loader options. These are small constructs that are passed to the Select.options() method of the Select object, which are then consumed by the ORM when the object is compiled into a SQL string.

Using load_only() to reduce loaded columns

The load_only() loader option is the most expedient option to use when loading objects where it is known that only a small handful of columns will be accessed. This option accepts a variable number of class-bound attribute objects indicating those column-mapped attributes that should be loaded, where all other column-mapped attributes outside of the primary key will not be part of the columns fetched . In the example below, the Book class contains columns .title, .summary and .cover_photo. Using load_only() we can instruct the ORM to only load the .title and .summary columns up front:

>>> from sqlalchemy import select
>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import load_only
>>> stmt = select(Book).options(load_only(Book.title, Book.summary))
>>> books = session.scalars(stmt).all()
SELECT book.id, book.title, book.summary FROM book [...] ()
>>> for book in books: ... print(f"{book.title} {book.summary}") 100 Years of Krabby Patties some long summary Sea Catch 22 another long summary The Sea Grapes of Wrath yet another summary A Nut Like No Other some long summary Geodesic Domes: A Retrospective another long summary Rocketry for Squirrels yet another summary

Above, the SELECT statement has omitted the .cover_photo column and included only .title and .summary, as well as the primary key column .id; the ORM will typically always fetch the primary key columns as these are required to establish the identity for the row.

Once loaded, the object will normally have lazy loading behavior applied to the remaining unloaded attributes, meaning that when any are first accessed, a SQL statement will be emitted within the current transaction in order to load the value. Below, accessing .cover_photo emits a SELECT statement to load its value:

>>> img_data = books[0].cover_photo
SELECT book.cover_photo AS book_cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (1,)

Lazy loads are always emitted using the Session to which the object is in the persistent state. If the object is detached from any Session, the operation fails, raising an exception.

As an alternative to lazy loading on access, deferred columns may also be configured to raise an informative exception when accessed, regardless of their attachment state. When using the load_only() construct, this may be indicated using the load_only.raiseload parameter. See the section Using raiseload to prevent deferred column loads for background and examples.

Tip

as noted elsewhere, lazy loading is not available when using Asynchronous I/O (asyncio).

Using load_only() with multiple entities

load_only() limits itself to the single entity that is referred towards in its list of attributes (passing a list of attributes that span more than a single entity is currently disallowed). In the example below, the given load_only() option applies only to the Book entity. The User entity that’s also selected is not affected; within the resulting SELECT statement, all columns for user_account are present, whereas only book.id and book.title are present for the book table:

>>> stmt = select(User, Book).join_from(User, Book).options(load_only(Book.title))
>>> print(stmt)
SELECT user_account.id, user_account.name, user_account.fullname, book.id AS id_1, book.title FROM user_account JOIN book ON user_account.id = book.owner_id

If we wanted to apply load_only() options to both User and Book, we would make use of two separate options:

>>> stmt = (
...     select(User, Book)
...     .join_from(User, Book)
...     .options(load_only(User.name), load_only(Book.title))
... )
>>> print(stmt)
SELECT user_account.id, user_account.name, book.id AS id_1, book.title FROM user_account JOIN book ON user_account.id = book.owner_id

Using defer() to omit specific columns

The defer() loader option is a more fine grained alternative to load_only(), which allows a single specific column to be marked as “dont load”. In the example below, defer() is applied directly to the .cover_photo column, leaving the behavior of all other columns unchanged:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import defer
>>> stmt = select(Book).where(Book.owner_id == 2).options(defer(Book.cover_photo))
>>> books = session.scalars(stmt).all()
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary FROM book WHERE book.owner_id = ? [...] (2,)
>>> for book in books: ... print(f"{book.title}: {book.summary}") A Nut Like No Other: some long summary Geodesic Domes: A Retrospective: another long summary Rocketry for Squirrels: yet another summary

As is the case with load_only(), unloaded columns by default will load themselves when accessed using lazy loading:

>>> img_data = books[0].cover_photo
SELECT book.cover_photo AS book_cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (4,)

Multiple defer() options may be used in one statement in order to mark several columns as deferred.

As is the case with load_only(), the defer() option also includes the ability to have a deferred attribute raise an exception on access rather than lazy loading. This is illustrated in the section Using raiseload to prevent deferred column loads.

Using raiseload to prevent deferred column loads

When using the load_only() or defer() loader options, attributes marked as deferred on an object have the default behavior that when first accessed, a SELECT statement will be emitted within the current transaction in order to load their value. It is often necessary to prevent this load from occurring, and instead raise an exception when the attribute is accessed, indicating that the need to query the database for this column was not expected. A typical scenario is an operation where objects are loaded with all the columns that are known to be required for the operation to proceed, which are then passed onto a view layer. Any further SQL operations that emit within the view layer should be caught, so that the up-front loading operation can be adjusted to accommodate for that additional data up front, rather than incurring additional lazy loading.

For this use case the defer() and load_only() options include a boolean parameter defer.raiseload, which when set to True will cause the affected attributes to raise on access. In the example below, the deferred column .cover_photo will disallow attribute access:

>>> book = session.scalar(
...     select(Book).options(defer(Book.cover_photo, raiseload=True)).where(Book.id == 4)
... )
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (4,)
>>> book.cover_photo Traceback (most recent call last): ... sqlalchemy.exc.InvalidRequestError: 'Book.cover_photo' is not available due to raiseload=True

When using load_only() to name a specific set of non-deferred columns, raiseload behavior may be applied to the remaining columns using the load_only.raiseload parameter, which will be applied to all deferred attributes:

>>> session.expunge_all()
>>> book = session.scalar(
...     select(Book).options(load_only(Book.title, raiseload=True)).where(Book.id == 5)
... )
SELECT book.id, book.title FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (5,)
>>> book.summary Traceback (most recent call last): ... sqlalchemy.exc.InvalidRequestError: 'Book.summary' is not available due to raiseload=True

Note

It is not yet possible to mix load_only() and defer() options which refer to the same entity together in one statement in order to change the raiseload behavior of certain attributes; currently, doing so will produce undefined loading behavior of attributes.

See also

The defer.raiseload feature is the column-level version of the same “raiseload” feature that’s available for relationships. For “raiseload” with relationships, see Preventing unwanted lazy loads using raiseload in the Relationship Loading Techniques section of this guide.

Configuring Column Deferral on Mappings

The functionality of defer() is available as a default behavior for mapped columns, as may be appropriate for columns that should not be loaded unconditionally on every query. To configure, use the mapped_column.deferred parameter of mapped_column(). The example below illustrates a mapping for Book which applies default column deferral to the summary and cover_photo columns:

>>> class Book(Base):
...     __tablename__ = "book"
...     id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(primary_key=True)
...     owner_id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(ForeignKey("user_account.id"))
...     title: Mapped[str]
...     summary: Mapped[str] = mapped_column(Text, deferred=True)
...     cover_photo: Mapped[bytes] = mapped_column(LargeBinary, deferred=True)
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return f"Book(id={self.id!r}, title={self.title!r})"

Using the above mapping, queries against Book will automatically not include the summary and cover_photo columns:

>>> book = session.scalar(select(Book).where(Book.id == 2))
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)

As is the case with all deferral, the default behavior when deferred attributes on the loaded object are first accessed is that they will lazy load their value:

>>> img_data = book.cover_photo
SELECT book.cover_photo AS book_cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)

As is the case with the defer() and load_only() loader options, mapper level deferral also includes an option for raiseload behavior to occur, rather than lazy loading, when no other options are present in a statement. This allows a mapping where certain columns will not load by default and will also never load lazily without explicit directives used in a statement. See the section Configuring mapper-level “raiseload” behavior for background on how to configure and use this behavior.

Using deferred() for imperative mappers, mapped SQL expressions

The deferred() function is the earlier, more general purpose “deferred column” mapping directive that precedes the introduction of the mapped_column() construct in SQLAlchemy.

deferred() is used when configuring ORM mappers, and accepts arbitrary SQL expressions or Column objects. As such it’s suitable to be used with non-declarative imperative mappings, passing it to the map_imperatively.properties dictionary:

from sqlalchemy import Blob
from sqlalchemy import Column
from sqlalchemy import ForeignKey
from sqlalchemy import Integer
from sqlalchemy import String
from sqlalchemy import Table
from sqlalchemy import Text
from sqlalchemy.orm import registry

mapper_registry = registry()

book_table = Table(
    "book",
    mapper_registry.metadata,
    Column("id", Integer, primary_key=True),
    Column("title", String(50)),
    Column("summary", Text),
    Column("cover_image", Blob),
)


class Book:
    pass


mapper_registry.map_imperatively(
    Book,
    book_table,
    properties={
        "summary": deferred(book_table.c.summary),
        "cover_image": deferred(book_table.c.cover_image),
    },
)

deferred() may also be used in place of column_property() when mapped SQL expressions should be loaded on a deferred basis:

from sqlalchemy.orm import deferred


class User(Base):
    __tablename__ = "user"

    id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(primary_key=True)
    firstname: Mapped[str] = mapped_column()
    lastname: Mapped[str] = mapped_column()
    fullname: Mapped[str] = deferred(firstname + " " + lastname)

Using undefer() to “eagerly” load deferred columns

With columns configured on mappings to defer by default, the undefer() option will cause any column that is normally deferred to be undeferred, that is, to load up front with all the other columns of the mapping. For example we may apply undefer() to the Book.summary column, which is indicated in the previous mapping as deferred:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import undefer
>>> book = session.scalar(select(Book).where(Book.id == 2).options(undefer(Book.summary)))
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)

The Book.summary column was now eagerly loaded, and may be accessed without additional SQL being emitted:

>>> print(book.summary)
another long summary

Loading deferred columns in groups

Normally when a column is mapped with mapped_column(deferred=True), when the deferred attribute is accessed on an object, SQL will be emitted to load only that specific column and no others, even if the mapping has other columns that are also marked as deferred. In the common case that the deferred attribute is part of a group of attributes that should all load at once, rather than emitting SQL for each attribute individually, the mapped_column.deferred_group parameter may be used, which accepts an arbitrary string which will define a common group of columns to be undeferred:

>>> class Book(Base):
...     __tablename__ = "book"
...     id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(primary_key=True)
...     owner_id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(ForeignKey("user_account.id"))
...     title: Mapped[str]
...     summary: Mapped[str] = mapped_column(
...         Text, deferred=True, deferred_group="book_attrs"
...     )
...     cover_photo: Mapped[bytes] = mapped_column(
...         LargeBinary, deferred=True, deferred_group="book_attrs"
...     )
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return f"Book(id={self.id!r}, title={self.title!r})"

Using the above mapping, accessing either summary or cover_photo will load both columns at once using just one SELECT statement:

>>> book = session.scalar(select(Book).where(Book.id == 2))
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)
>>> img_data, summary = book.cover_photo, book.summary
SELECT book.summary AS book_summary, book.cover_photo AS book_cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)

Undeferring by group with undefer_group()

If deferred columns are configured with mapped_column.deferred_group as introduced in the preceding section, the entire group may be indicated to load eagerly using the undefer_group() option, passing the string name of the group to be eagerly loaded:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import undefer_group
>>> book = session.scalar(
...     select(Book).where(Book.id == 2).options(undefer_group("book_attrs"))
... )
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary, book.cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)

Both summary and cover_photo are available without additional loads:

>>> img_data, summary = book.cover_photo, book.summary

Undeferring on wildcards

Most ORM loader options accept a wildcard expression, indicated by "*", which indicates that the option should be applied to all relevant attributes. If a mapping has a series of deferred columns, all such columns can be undeferred at once, without using a group name, by indicating a wildcard:

>>> book = session.scalar(select(Book).where(Book.id == 3).options(undefer("*")))
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary, book.cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (3,)

Configuring mapper-level “raiseload” behavior

The “raiseload” behavior first introduced at Using raiseload to prevent deferred column loads may also be applied as a default mapper-level behavior, using the mapped_column.deferred_raiseload parameter of mapped_column(). When using this parameter, the affected columns will raise on access in all cases unless explicitly “undeferred” using undefer() or load_only() at query time:

>>> class Book(Base):
...     __tablename__ = "book"
...     id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(primary_key=True)
...     owner_id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(ForeignKey("user_account.id"))
...     title: Mapped[str]
...     summary: Mapped[str] = mapped_column(Text, deferred=True, deferred_raiseload=True)
...     cover_photo: Mapped[bytes] = mapped_column(
...         LargeBinary, deferred=True, deferred_raiseload=True
...     )
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return f"Book(id={self.id!r}, title={self.title!r})"

Using the above mapping, the .summary and .cover_photo columns are by default not loadable:

>>> book = session.scalar(select(Book).where(Book.id == 2))
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)
>>> book.summary Traceback (most recent call last): ... sqlalchemy.exc.InvalidRequestError: 'Book.summary' is not available due to raiseload=True

Only by overridding their behavior at query time, typically using undefer() or undefer_group(), or less commonly defer(), may the attributes be loaded. The example below applies undefer('*') to undefer all attributes, also making use of Populate Existing to refresh the already-loaded object’s loader options:

>>> book = session.scalar(
...     select(Book)
...     .where(Book.id == 2)
...     .options(undefer("*"))
...     .execution_options(populate_existing=True)
... )
SELECT book.id, book.owner_id, book.title, book.summary, book.cover_photo FROM book WHERE book.id = ? [...] (2,)
>>> book.summary 'another long summary'

Loading Arbitrary SQL Expressions onto Objects

As discussed Selecting ORM Entities and Attributes and elsewhere, the select() construct may be used to load arbitrary SQL expressions in a result set. Such as if we wanted to issue a query that loads User objects, but also includes a count of how many books each User owned, we could use func.count(Book.id) to add a “count” column to a query which includes a JOIN to Book as well as a GROUP BY owner id. This will yield Row objects that each contain two entries, one for User and one for func.count(Book.id):

>>> from sqlalchemy import func
>>> stmt = select(User, func.count(Book.id)).join_from(User, Book).group_by(Book.owner_id)
>>> for user, book_count in session.execute(stmt):
...     print(f"Username: {user.name}  Number of books: {book_count}")
SELECT user_account.id, user_account.name, user_account.fullname, count(book.id) AS count_1 FROM user_account JOIN book ON user_account.id = book.owner_id GROUP BY book.owner_id [...] ()
Username: spongebob Number of books: 3 Username: sandy Number of books: 3

In the above example, the User entity and the “book count” SQL expression are returned separately. However, a popular use case is to produce a query that will yield User objects alone, which can be iterated for example using Session.scalars(), where the result of the func.count(Book.id) SQL expression is applied dynamically to each User entity. The end result would be similar to the case where an arbitrary SQL expression were mapped to the class using column_property(), except that the SQL expression can be modified at query time. For this use case SQLAlchemy provides the with_expression() loader option, which when combined with the mapper level query_expression() directive may produce this result.

To apply with_expression() to a query, the mapped class must have pre-configured an ORM mapped attribute using the query_expression() directive; this directive will produce an attribute on the mapped class that is suitable for receiving query-time SQL expressions. Below we add a new attribute User.book_count to User. This ORM mapped attribute is read-only and has no default value; accessing it on a loaded instance will normally produce None:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import query_expression
>>> class User(Base):
...     __tablename__ = "user_account"
...     id: Mapped[int] = mapped_column(primary_key=True)
...     name: Mapped[str]
...     fullname: Mapped[Optional[str]]
...     book_count: Mapped[int] = query_expression()
...
...     def __repr__(self) -> str:
...         return f"User(id={self.id!r}, name={self.name!r}, fullname={self.fullname!r})"

With the User.book_count attribute configured in our mapping, we may populate it with data from a SQL expression using the with_expression() loader option to apply a custom SQL expression to each User object as it’s loaded:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import with_expression
>>> stmt = (
...     select(User)
...     .join_from(User, Book)
...     .group_by(Book.owner_id)
...     .options(with_expression(User.book_count, func.count(Book.id)))
... )
>>> for user in session.scalars(stmt):
...     print(f"Username: {user.name}  Number of books: {user.book_count}")
SELECT count(book.id) AS count_1, user_account.id, user_account.name, user_account.fullname FROM user_account JOIN book ON user_account.id = book.owner_id GROUP BY book.owner_id [...] ()
Username: spongebob Number of books: 3 Username: sandy Number of books: 3

Above, we moved our func.count(Book.id) expression out of the columns argument of the select() construct and into the with_expression() loader option. The ORM then considers this to be a special column load option that’s applied dynamically to the statement.

The query_expression() mapping has these caveats:

  • On an object where with_expression() were not used to populate the attribute, the attribute on an object instance will have the value None, unless on the mapping the query_expression.default_expr parameter is set to a default SQL expression.

  • The with_expression() value does not populate on an object that is already loaded, unless Populate Existing is used. The example below will not work, as the A object is already loaded:

    # load the first A
    obj = session.scalars(select(A).order_by(A.id)).first()
    
    # load the same A with an option; expression will **not** be applied
    # to the already-loaded object
    obj = session.scalars(select(A).options(with_expression(A.expr, some_expr))).first()

    To ensure the attribute is re-loaded on an existing object, use the Populate Existing execution option to ensure all columns are re-populated:

    obj = session.scalars(
        select(A)
        .options(with_expression(A.expr, some_expr))
        .execution_options(populate_existing=True)
    ).first()
  • The with_expression() SQL expression is lost when when the object is expired. Once the object is expired, either via Session.expire() or via the expire_on_commit behavior of Session.commit(), the SQL expression and its value is no longer associated with the attribute and will return None on subsequent access.

  • The mapped attribute currently cannot be applied to other parts of the query, such as the WHERE clause, the ORDER BY clause, and make use of the ad-hoc expression; that is, this won’t work:

    # can't refer to A.expr elsewhere in the query
    stmt = (
        select(A)
        .options(with_expression(A.expr, A.x + A.y))
        .filter(A.expr > 5)
        .order_by(A.expr)
    )

    The A.expr expression will resolve to NULL in the above WHERE clause and ORDER BY clause. To use the expression throughout the query, assign to a variable and use that:

    # assign desired expression up front, then refer to that in
    # the query
    a_expr = A.x + A.y
    stmt = (
        select(A)
        .options(with_expression(A.expr, a_expr))
        .filter(a_expr > 5)
        .order_by(a_expr)
    )

See also

The with_expression() option is a special option used to apply SQL expressions to mapped classes dynamically at query time. For ordinary fixed SQL expressions configured on mappers, see the section SQL Expressions as Mapped Attributes.

Column Loading API

Object Name Description

defer(key, *addl_attrs, [raiseload])

Indicate that the given column-oriented attribute should be deferred, e.g. not loaded until accessed.

deferred(column, *additional_columns, [group, raiseload, comparator_factory, init, repr, default, default_factory, compare, kw_only, active_history, expire_on_flush, info, doc])

Indicate a column-based mapped attribute that by default will not load unless accessed.

load_only(*attrs, [raiseload])

Indicate that for a particular entity, only the given list of column-based attribute names should be loaded; all others will be deferred.

query_expression([default_expr], *, [repr, expire_on_flush, info, doc])

Indicate an attribute that populates from a query-time SQL expression.

undefer(key, *addl_attrs)

Indicate that the given column-oriented attribute should be undeferred, e.g. specified within the SELECT statement of the entity as a whole.

undefer_group(name)

Indicate that columns within the given deferred group name should be undeferred.

with_expression(key, expression)

Apply an ad-hoc SQL expression to a “deferred expression” attribute.

function sqlalchemy.orm.defer(key: Union[str, QueryableAttribute[Any]], *addl_attrs: Union[str, QueryableAttribute[Any]], raiseload: bool = False) _AbstractLoad

Indicate that the given column-oriented attribute should be deferred, e.g. not loaded until accessed.

This function is part of the Load interface and supports both method-chained and standalone operation.

e.g.:

from sqlalchemy.orm import defer

session.query(MyClass).options(
    defer(MyClass.attribute_one),
    defer(MyClass.attribute_two)
)

To specify a deferred load of an attribute on a related class, the path can be specified one token at a time, specifying the loading style for each link along the chain. To leave the loading style for a link unchanged, use defaultload():

session.query(MyClass).options(
    defaultload(MyClass.someattr).defer(RelatedClass.some_column)
)

Multiple deferral options related to a relationship can be bundled at once using Load.options():

session.query(MyClass).options(
    defaultload(MyClass.someattr).options(
        defer(RelatedClass.some_column),
        defer(RelatedClass.some_other_column),
        defer(RelatedClass.another_column)
    )
)
Parameters:
  • key – Attribute to be deferred.

  • raiseload – raise InvalidRequestError rather than lazy loading a value when the deferred attribute is accessed. Used to prevent unwanted SQL from being emitted.

New in version 1.4.

function sqlalchemy.orm.deferred(column: _ORMColumnExprArgument[_T], *additional_columns: _ORMColumnExprArgument[Any], group: Optional[str] = None, raiseload: bool = False, comparator_factory: Optional[Type[PropComparator[_T]]] = None, init: Union[_NoArg, bool] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, repr: Union[_NoArg, bool] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, default: Optional[Any] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, default_factory: Union[_NoArg, Callable[[], _T]] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, compare: Union[_NoArg, bool] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, kw_only: Union[_NoArg, bool] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, active_history: bool = False, expire_on_flush: bool = True, info: Optional[_InfoType] = None, doc: Optional[str] = None) ColumnProperty[_T]

Indicate a column-based mapped attribute that by default will not load unless accessed.

When using mapped_column(), the same functionality as that of deferred() construct is provided by using the mapped_column.deferred parameter.

Parameters:
  • *columns – columns to be mapped. This is typically a single Column object, however a collection is supported in order to support multiple columns mapped under the same attribute.

  • raiseload

    boolean, if True, indicates an exception should be raised if the load operation is to take place.

    New in version 1.4.

Additional arguments are the same as that of column_property().

function sqlalchemy.orm.query_expression(default_expr: _ORMColumnExprArgument[_T] = <sqlalchemy.sql.elements.Null object>, *, repr: Union[_NoArg, bool] = _NoArg.NO_ARG, expire_on_flush: bool = True, info: Optional[_InfoType] = None, doc: Optional[str] = None) ColumnProperty[_T]

Indicate an attribute that populates from a query-time SQL expression.

Parameters:

default_expr – Optional SQL expression object that will be used in all cases if not assigned later with with_expression().

New in version 1.2.

See also

Loading Arbitrary SQL Expressions onto Objects - background and usage examples

function sqlalchemy.orm.load_only(*attrs: Union[str, QueryableAttribute[Any]], raiseload: bool = False) _AbstractLoad

Indicate that for a particular entity, only the given list of column-based attribute names should be loaded; all others will be deferred.

This function is part of the Load interface and supports both method-chained and standalone operation.

Example - given a class User, load only the name and fullname attributes:

session.query(User).options(load_only(User.name, User.fullname))

Example - given a relationship User.addresses -> Address, specify subquery loading for the User.addresses collection, but on each Address object load only the email_address attribute:

session.query(User).options(
    subqueryload(User.addresses).load_only(Address.email_address)
)

For a statement that has multiple entities, the lead entity can be specifically referred to using the Load constructor:

stmt = select(User, Address).join(User.addresses).options(
            Load(User).load_only(User.name, User.fullname),
            Load(Address).load_only(Address.email_address)
        )
Parameters:
  • *attrs – Attributes to be loaded, all others will be deferred.

  • raiseload

    raise InvalidRequestError rather than lazy loading a value when a deferred attribute is accessed. Used to prevent unwanted SQL from being emitted.

    New in version 2.0.

Parameters:
  • *attrs – Attributes to be loaded, all others will be deferred.

  • raiseload

    raise InvalidRequestError rather than lazy loading a value when a deferred attribute is accessed. Used to prevent unwanted SQL from being emitted.

    New in version 2.0.

function sqlalchemy.orm.undefer(key: Union[str, QueryableAttribute[Any]], *addl_attrs: Union[str, QueryableAttribute[Any]]) _AbstractLoad

Indicate that the given column-oriented attribute should be undeferred, e.g. specified within the SELECT statement of the entity as a whole.

The column being undeferred is typically set up on the mapping as a deferred() attribute.

This function is part of the Load interface and supports both method-chained and standalone operation.

Examples:

# undefer two columns
session.query(MyClass).options(
    undefer(MyClass.col1), undefer(MyClass.col2)
)

# undefer all columns specific to a single class using Load + *
session.query(MyClass, MyOtherClass).options(
    Load(MyClass).undefer("*"))

# undefer a column on a related object
session.query(MyClass).options(
    defaultload(MyClass.items).undefer(MyClass.text))
Parameters:

key – Attribute to be undeferred.

function sqlalchemy.orm.undefer_group(name: str) _AbstractLoad

Indicate that columns within the given deferred group name should be undeferred.

The columns being undeferred are set up on the mapping as deferred() attributes and include a “group” name.

E.g:

session.query(MyClass).options(undefer_group("large_attrs"))

To undefer a group of attributes on a related entity, the path can be spelled out using relationship loader options, such as defaultload():

session.query(MyClass).options(
    defaultload("someattr").undefer_group("large_attrs"))
function sqlalchemy.orm.with_expression(key: _AttrType, expression: _ColumnExpressionArgument[Any]) _AbstractLoad

Apply an ad-hoc SQL expression to a “deferred expression” attribute.

This option is used in conjunction with the query_expression() mapper-level construct that indicates an attribute which should be the target of an ad-hoc SQL expression.

E.g.:

sess.query(SomeClass).options(
    with_expression(SomeClass.x_y_expr, SomeClass.x + SomeClass.y)
)

New in version 1.2.

Parameters:
  • key – Attribute to be undeferred.

  • expr – SQL expression to be applied to the attribute.

See also

Loading Arbitrary SQL Expressions onto Objects - background and usage examples