Release: 1.3.1 current release | Release Date: March 9, 2019

SQLAlchemy 1.3 Documentation

1.1 Changelog


no release date


Released: March 6, 2018


  • [postgresql] [bug] [py3k] Fixed bug in PostgreSQL COLLATE / ARRAY adjustment first introduced in #4006 where new behaviors in Python 3.7 regular expressions caused the fix to fail.

    References: #4208


  • [mysql] [bug] MySQL dialects now query the server version using SELECT @@version explicitly to the server to ensure we are getting the correct version information back. Proxy servers like MaxScale interfere with the value that is passed to the DBAPI’s connection.server_version value so this is no longer reliable.

    References: #4205


Released: February 22, 2018
  • [bug] [ext] Repaired regression caused in 1.2.3 and 1.1.16 regarding association proxy objects, revising the approach to #4185 when calculating the “owning class” of an association proxy to default to choosing the current class if the proxy object is not directly associated with a mapped class, such as a mixin.

    References: #4185


Released: February 16, 2018


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed issue in post_update feature where an UPDATE is emitted when the parent object has been deleted but the dependent object is not. This issue has existed for a long time however since 1.2 now asserts rows matched for post_update, this was raising an error.

    References: #4187

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed regression caused by fix for issue #4116 affecting versions 1.2.2 as well as 1.1.15, which had the effect of mis-calculation of the “owning class” of an AssociationProxy as the NoneType class in some declarative mixin/inheritance situations as well as if the association proxy were accessed off of an un-mapped class. The “figure out the owner” logic has been replaced by an in-depth routine that searches through the complete mapper hierarchy assigned to the class or subclass to determine the correct (we hope) match; will not assign the owner if no match is found. An exception is now raised if the proxy is used against an un-mapped instance.

    References: #4185

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where an object that is expunged during a rollback of a nested or subtransaction which also had its primary key mutated would not be correctly removed from the session, causing subsequent issues in using the session.

    References: #4151


  • [sql] [bug] Added nullsfirst() and nullslast() as top level imports in the sqlalchemy. and sqlalchemy.sql. namespace. Pull request courtesy Lele Gaifax.

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in Insert.values() where using the “multi-values” format in combination with Column objects as keys rather than strings would fail. Pull request courtesy Aubrey Stark-Toller.

    References: #4162


  • [postgresql] [bug] Added “SSL SYSCALL error: Operation timed out” to the list of messages that trigger a “disconnect” scenario for the psycopg2 driver. Pull request courtesy André Cruz.

  • [postgresql] [bug] Added “TRUNCATE” to the list of keywords accepted by the PostgreSQL dialect as an “autocommit”-triggering keyword. Pull request courtesy Jacob Hayes.


  • [mysql] [bug] Fixed bug where the MySQL “concat” and “match” operators failed to propagate kwargs to the left and right expressions, causing compiler options such as “literal_binds” to fail.

    References: #4136


  • [bug] [pool] Fixed a fairly serious connection pool bug where a connection that is acquired after being refreshed as a result of a user-defined DisconnectionError or due to the 1.2-released “pre_ping” feature would not be correctly reset if the connection were returned to the pool by weakref cleanup (e.g. the front-facing object is garbage collected); the weakref would still refer to the previously invalidated DBAPI connection which would have the reset operation erroneously called upon it instead. This would lead to stack traces in the logs and a connection being checked into the pool without being reset, which can cause locking issues.

    References: #4184


Released: November 3, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] [ext] Fixed bug where the association proxy would inadvertently link itself to an AliasedClass object if it were called first with the AliasedClass as a parent, causing errors upon subsequent usage.

    References: #4116

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where ORM relationship would warn against conflicting sync targets (e.g. two relationships would both write to the same column) for sibling classes in an inheritance hierarchy, where the two relationships would never actually conflict during writes.

    References: #4078

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where correlated select used against single-table inheritance entity would fail to render correctly in the outer query, due to adjustment for single inheritance discriminator criteria inappropriately re-applying the criteria to the outer query.

    References: #4103

orm declarative

  • [bug] [declarative] [orm] Fixed bug where a descriptor that is elsewhere a mapped column or relationship within a hierarchy based on AbstractConcreteBase would be referred towards during a refresh operation, causing an error as the attribute is not mapped as a mapper property. A similar issue can arise for other attributes like the “type” column added by AbstractConcreteBase if the class fails to include “concrete=True” in its mapper, however the check here should also prevent that scenario from causing a problem.

    References: #4124


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug where __repr__ of ColumnDefault would fail if the argument were a tuple. Pull request courtesy Nicolas Caniart.

    References: #4126

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug where the recently added ColumnOperators.any_() and ColumnOperators.all_() methods didn’t work when called as methods, as opposed to using the standalone functions any_() and all_(). Also added documentation examples for these relatively unintuitive SQL operators.

    References: #4093


  • [postgresql] [bug] Made further fixes to the ARRAY class in conjunction with COLLATE, as the fix made in #4006 failed to accommodate for a multidimensional array.

    References: #4006

  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug in array_agg function where passing an argument that is already of type ARRAY, such as a PostgreSQL postgresql.array construct, would produce a ValueError, due to the function attempting to nest the arrays.

    References: #4107

  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug in PostgreSQL postgresql.dml.Insert.on_conflict_do_update() which would prevent the insert statement from being used as a CTE, e.g. via Insert.cte(), within another statement.

    References: #4074


  • [mysql] [bug] Warning emitted when MariaDB 10.2.8 or earlier in the 10.2 series is detected as there are major issues with CHECK constraints within these versions that were resolved as of 10.2.9.

    Note that this changelog message was NOT released with SQLAlchemy 1.2.0b3 and was added retroactively.

    References: #4097

  • [mysql] [bug] MySQL 5.7.20 now warns for use of the @tx_isolation variable; a version check is now performed and uses @transaction_isolation instead to prevent this warning.

    References: #4120


  • [mssql] [bug] Added a full range of “connection closed” exception codes to the PyODBC dialect for SQL Server, including ‘08S01’, ‘01002’, ‘08003’, ‘08007’, ‘08S02’, ‘08001’, ‘HYT00’, ‘HY010’. Previously, only ‘08S01’ was covered.

    References: #4095


Released: September 5, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in Session.merge() following along similar lines as that of #4030, where an internal check for a target object in the identity map could lead to an error if it were to be garbage collected immediately before the merge routine actually retrieves the object.

    References: #4069

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where an undefer_group() option would not be recognized if it extended from a relationship that was loading using joined eager loading. Additionally, as the bug led to excess work being performed, Python function call counts are also improved by 20% within the initial calculation of result set columns, complementing the joined eager load improvements of #3915.

    References: #4048

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed race condition in ORM identity map which would cause objects to be inappropriately removed during a load operation, causing duplicate object identities to occur, particularly under joined eager loading which involves deduplication of objects. The issue is specific to garbage collection of weak references and is observed only under the PyPy interpreter.

    References: #4068

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in Session.merge() where objects in a collection that had the primary key attribute set to None for a key that is typically autoincrementing would be considered to be a database-persisted key for part of the internal deduplication process, causing only one object to actually be inserted in the database.

    References: #4056

  • [orm] [bug] An InvalidRequestError is raised when a synonym() is used against an attribute that is not against a MapperProperty, such as an association proxy. Previously, a recursion overflow would occur trying to locate non-existent attributes.

    References: #4067


  • [sql] [bug] Altered the range specification for window functions to allow for two of the same PRECEDING or FOLLOWING keywords in a range by allowing for the left side of the range to be positive and for the right to be negative, e.g. (1, 3) is “1 FOLLOWING AND 3 FOLLOWING”.

    References: #4053


Released: August 3, 2017


  • [oracle] [bug] [performance] [py2k] Fixed performance regression caused by the fix for #3937 where cx_Oracle as of version 5.3 dropped the .UNICODE symbol from its namespace, which was interpreted as cx_Oracle’s “WITH_UNICODE” mode being turned on unconditionally, which invokes functions on the SQLAlchemy side which convert all strings to unicode unconditionally and causing a performance impact. In fact, per cx_Oracle’s author the “WITH_UNICODE” mode has been removed entirely as of 5.1, so the expensive unicode conversion functions are no longer necessary and are disabled if cx_Oracle 5.1 or greater is detected under Python 2. The warning against “WITH_UNICODE” mode that was removed under #3937 is also restored.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.19

    References: #4035


Released: July 24, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed regression from 1.1.11 where adding additional non-entity columns to a query that includes an entity with subqueryload relationships would fail, due to an inspection added in 1.1.11 as a result of #4011.

    References: #4033

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug involving JSON NULL evaluation logic added in 1.1 as part of #3514 where the logic would not accommodate ORM mapped attributes named differently from the Column that was mapped.

    References: #4031

  • [orm] [bug] Added KeyError checks to all methods within WeakInstanceDict where a check for key in dict is followed by indexed access to that key, to guard against a race against garbage collection that under load can remove the key from the dict after the code assumes its present, leading to very infrequent KeyError raises.

    References: #4030


  • [oracle] [feature] [postgresql] Added new keywords Sequence.cache and Sequence.order to Sequence, to allow rendering of the CACHE parameter understood by Oracle and PostgreSQL, and the ORDER parameter understood by Oracle. Pull request courtesy David Moore.


  • [bug] [py3k] [tests] Fixed issue in testing fixtures which was incompatible with a change made as of Python 3.6.2 involving context managers.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.18

    References: #4034


Released: Monday, June 19, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed issue with subquery eagerloading which continues on from the series of issues fixed in #2699, #3106, #3893 involving that the “subquery” contains the correct FROM clause when beginning from a joined inheritance subclass and then subquery eager loading onto a relationship from the base class, while the query also includes criteria against the subclass. The fix in the previous tickets did not accommodate for additional subqueryload operations loading more deeply from the first level, so the fix has been further generalized.

    References: #4011


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed AttributeError which would occur in WithinGroup construct during an iteration of the structure.

    References: #4012


  • [postgresql] [bug] Continuing with the fix that correctly handles PostgreSQL version string “10devel” released in 1.1.8, an additional regexp bump to handle version strings of the form “10beta1”. While PostgreSQL now offers better ways to get this information, we are sticking w/ the regexp at least through 1.1.x for the least amount of risk to compatibility w/ older or alternate PostgreSQL databases.

    References: #4005

  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug where using ARRAY with a string type that features a collation would fail to produce the correct syntax within CREATE TABLE.

    References: #4006


  • [mysql] [bug] MySQL 5.7 has introduced permission limiting for the “SHOW VARIABLES” command; the MySQL dialect will now handle when SHOW returns no row, in particular for the initial fetch of SQL_MODE, and will emit a warning that user permissions should be modified to allow the row to be present.

    References: #4007


  • [mssql] [bug] Fixed bug where SQL Server transaction isolation must be fetched from a different view when using Azure data warehouse, the query is now attempted against both views and then a NotImplemented is raised unconditionally if failure continues to provide the best resiliency against future arbitrary API changes in new SQL Server versions.

    References: #3994

  • [mssql] [bug] Added a placeholder type mssql.XML to the SQL Server dialect, so that a reflected table which includes this type can be re-rendered as a CREATE TABLE. The type has no special round-trip behavior nor does it currently support additional qualifying arguments.

    References: #3973


  • [oracle] [bug] Support for two-phase transactions has been removed entirely for cx_Oracle when version 6.0b1 or later of the DBAPI is in use. The two- phase feature historically has never been usable under cx_Oracle 5.x in any case, and cx_Oracle 6.x has removed the connection-level “twophase” flag upon which this feature relied.

    References: #3997


Released: Friday, May 19, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where a cascade such as “delete-orphan” (but others as well) would fail to locate an object linked to a relationship that itself is local to a subclass in an inheritance relationship, thus causing the operation to not take place.

    References: #3986


  • [schema] [bug] An ArgumentError is now raised if a ForeignKeyConstraint object is created with a mismatched number of “local” and “remote” columns, which otherwise causes the internal state of the constraint to be incorrect. Note that this also impacts the condition where a dialect’s reflection process produces a mismatched set of columns for a foreign key constraint.

    References: #3949


  • [postgresql] [bug] Added “autocommit” support for GRANT, REVOKE keywords. Pull request courtesy Jacob Hayes.


  • [mysql] [bug] Removed an ancient and unnecessary intercept of the UTC_TIMESTAMP MySQL function, which was getting in the way of using it with a parameter.

    References: #3966

  • [mysql] [bug] Fixed bug in MySQL dialect regarding rendering of table options in conjunction with PARTITION options when rendering CREATE TABLE. The PARTITION related options need to follow the table options, whereas previously this ordering was not enforced.

    References: #3961


  • [oracle] [bug] Fixed bug in cx_Oracle dialect where version string parsing would fail for cx_Oracle version 6.0b1 due to the “b” character. Version string parsing is now via a regexp rather than a simple split.

    References: #3975


  • [bug] [ext] Protected against testing “None” as a class in the case where declarative classes are being garbage collected and new automap prepare() operations are taking place concurrently, very infrequently hitting a weakref that has not been fully acted upon after gc.

    References: #3980


Released: April 4, 2017


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed regression released in 1.1.5 due to #3859 where adjustments to the “right-hand-side” evaluation of an expression based on Variant to honor the underlying type’s “right-hand-side” rules caused the Variant type to be inappropriately lost, in those cases when we do want the left-hand side type to be transferred directly to the right hand side so that bind-level rules can be applied to the expression’s argument.

    References: #3952

  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql] Changed the mechanics of ResultProxy to unconditionally delay the “autoclose” step until the Connection is done with the object; in the case where PostgreSQL ON CONFLICT with RETURNING returns no rows, autoclose was occurring in this previously non-existent use case, causing the usual autocommit behavior that occurs unconditionally upon INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE to fail.

    References: #3955


  • [bug] [ext] Fixed regression released in 1.1.8 due to #3950 where the deeper search for information about column types in the case of a “schema type” or a TypeDecorator would produce an attribute error if the mapping also contained a column_property.

    References: #3956


Released: March 31, 2017


  • [postgresql] [bug] Added support for parsing the PostgreSQL version string for a development version like “PostgreSQL 10devel”. Pull request courtesy Sean McCully.


  • [bug] [ext] Fixed bug in sqlalchemy.ext.mutable where the Mutable.as_mutable() method would not track a type that had been copied using TypeEngine.copy(). This became more of a regression in 1.1 compared to 1.0 because the TypeDecorator class is now a subclass of SchemaEventTarget, which among other things indicates to the parent Column that the type should be copied when the Column is. These copies are common when using declarative with mixins or abstract classes.

    References: #3950

  • [bug] [ext] Added support for bound parameters, e.g. those normally set up via Query.params(), to the baked.Result.count() method. Previously, support for parameters were omitted. Pull request courtesy Pat Deegan.


Released: March 27, 2017


  • [orm] [feature] An aliased() construct can now be passed to the Query.select_entity_from() method. Entities will be pulled from the selectable represented by the aliased() construct. This allows special options for aliased() such as aliased.adapt_on_names to be used in conjunction with Query.select_entity_from().

    References: #3933

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed a race condition which could occur under threaded environments as a result of the caching added via #3915. An internal collection of Column objects could be regenerated on an alias object inappropriately, confusing a joined eager loader when it attempts to render SQL and collect results and resulting in an attribute error. The collection is now generated up front before the alias object is cached and shared among threads.

    References: #3947


  • [engine] [bug] Added an exception handler that will warn for the “cause” exception on Py2K when the “autorollback” feature of Connection itself raises an exception. In Py3K, the two exceptions are naturally reported by the interpreter as one occurring during the handling of the other. This is continuing with the series of changes for rollback failure handling that were last visited as part of #2696 in 1.0.12.

    References: #3946


  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql] Added support for the Variant and the SchemaType objects to be compatible with each other. That is, a variant can be created against a type like Enum, and the instructions to create constraints and/or database-specific type objects will propagate correctly as per the variant’s dialect mapping.

    References: #2892

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in compiler where the string identifier of a savepoint would be cached in the identifier quoting dictionary; as these identifiers are arbitrary, a small memory leak could occur if a single Connection had an unbounded number of savepoints used, as well as if the savepoint clause constructs were used directly with an unbounded umber of savepoint names. The memory leak does not impact the vast majority of cases as normally the Connection, which renders savepoint names with a simple counter starting at “1”, is used on a per-transaction or per-fixed-number-of-transactions basis before being discarded.

    References: #3931

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in new “schema translate” feature where the translated schema name would be invoked in terms of an alias name when rendered along with a column expression; occurred only when the source translate name was “None”. The “schema translate” feature now only takes effect for SchemaItem and SchemaType subclasses, that is, objects that correspond to a DDL-creatable structure in a database.

    References: #3924


  • [oracle] [bug] A fix to cx_Oracle’s WITH_UNICODE mode which was uncovered by the fact that cx_Oracle 5.3 now seems to hardcode this flag on in the build; an internal method that uses this mode wasn’t using the correct signature.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.18

    References: #3937


Released: February 28, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Addressed some long unattended performance concerns within the joined eager loader query construction system that have accumulated since earlier versions as a result of increased abstraction. The use of ad- hoc AliasedClass objects per query, which produces lots of column lookup overhead each time, has been replaced with a cached approach that makes use of a small pool of AliasedClass objects that are reused between invocations of joined eager loading. Some mechanics involving eager join path construction have also been optimized. Callcounts for an end-to-end query construction + single row fetch test with a worst-case joined loader scenario have been reduced by about 60% vs. 1.1.5 and 42% vs. that of 0.8.6.

    References: #3915

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed a major inefficiency in the “eager_defaults” feature whereby an unnecessary SELECT would be emitted for column values where the ORM had explicitly inserted NULL, corresponding to attributes that were unset on the object but did not have any server default specified, as well as expired attributes on update that nevertheless had no server onupdate set up. As these columns are not part of the RETURNING that eager_defaults tries to use, they should not be post-SELECTed either.

    References: #3909

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed two closely related bugs involving the mapper eager_defaults flag in conjunction with single-table inheritance; one where the eager defaults logic would inadvertently try to access a column that’s part of the mapper’s “exclude_properties” list (used by Declarative with single table inheritance) during the eager defaults fetch, and the other where the full load of the row in order to fetch the defaults would fail to use the correct inheriting mapper.

    References: #3908

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug first introduced in 0.9.7 as a result of #3106 which would cause an incorrect query in some forms of multi-level subqueryload against aliased entities, with an unnecessary extra FROM entity in the innermost subquery.

    References: #3893

orm declarative

  • [bug] [declarative] [orm] Fixed bug where the “automatic exclude” feature of declarative that ensures a column local to a single table inheritance subclass does not appear as an attribute on other derivations of the base would not take effect for multiple levels of subclassing from the base.

    References: #3895


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug whereby the DDLEvents.column_reflect() event would not allow a non-textual expression to be passed as the value of the “default” for the new column, such as a FetchedValue object to indicate a generic triggered default or a sql.expression.text() construct. Clarified the documentation in this regard as well.

    References: #3905


  • [postgresql] [bug] Added regular expressions for the “IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA”, “REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW” PostgreSQL statements so that they autocommit when invoked via a connection or engine without an explicit transaction. Pull requests courtesy Frazer McLean and Paweł Stiasny.

    References: #3804

  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug in PostgreSQL ExcludeConstraint where the “whereclause” and “using” parameters would not be copied during an operation like Table.tometadata().

    References: #3900


  • [mysql] [bug] Added new MySQL 8.0 reserved words to the MySQL dialect for proper quoting. Pull request courtesy Hanno Schlichting.


  • [mssql] [bug] Added a version check to the “get_isolation_level” feature, which is invoked upon first connect, so that it skips for SQL Server version 2000, as the necessary system view is not available prior to SQL Server 2005.

    References: #3898



Released: January 17, 2017


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug involving joined eager loading against multiple entities when polymorphic inheritance is also in use which would throw “‘NoneType’ object has no attribute ‘isa’”. The issue was introduced by the fix for #3611.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.17

    References: #3884

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in subquery loading where an object encountered as an “existing” row, e.g. already loaded from a different path in the same query, would not invoke subquery loaders for unloaded attributes that specified this loading. This issue is in the same area as that of #3431, #3811 which involved similar issues with joined loading.

    References: #3854

  • [orm] [bug] The Session.no_autoflush context manager now ensures that the autoflush flag is reset within a “finally” block, so that if an exception is raised within the block, the state still resets appropriately. Pull request courtesy Emin Arakelian.

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where the single-table inheritance query criteria would not be inserted into the query in the case that the Bundle construct were used as the selection criteria.

    References: #3874

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug related to #3177, where a UNION or other set operation emitted by a Query would apply “single-inheritance” criteria to the outside of the union (also referencing the wrong selectable), even though this criteria is now expected to be already present on the inside subqueries. The single-inheritance criteria is now omitted once union() or another set operation is called against Query in the same way as Query.from_self().

    References: #3856


  • [engine] [bug] The “extend_existing” option of Table reflection would cause indexes and constraints to be doubled up in the case that the parameter were used with MetaData.reflect() (as the automap extension does) due to tables being reflected both within the foreign key path as well as directly. A new de-duplicating set is passed through within the MetaData.reflect() sequence to prevent double reflection in this way.

    References: #3861


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug originally introduced in 0.9 via #1068 where order_by(<some Label()>) would order by the label name based on name alone, that is, even if the labeled expression were not at all the same expression otherwise present, implicitly or explicitly, in the selectable. The logic that orders by label now ensures that the labeled expression is related to the one that resolves to that name before ordering by the label name; additionally, the name has to resolve to an actual label explicit in the expression elsewhere, not just a column name. This logic is carefully kept separate from the order by(textual name) feature that has a slightly different purpose.

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed 1.1 regression where “import *” would not work for sqlalchemy.sql.expression, due to mis-spelled any_ and all_ functions.

    References: #3878

  • [sql] [bug] The engine URL embedded in the exception for “could not reflect” in MetaData.reflect() now conceals the password; also the __repr__ for TLEngine now acts like that of Engine, concealing the URL password. Pull request courtesy Valery Yundin.

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed issue in Variant where the “right hand coercion” logic, inherited from TypeDecorator, would coerce the right-hand side into the Variant itself, rather than what the default type for the Variant would do. In the case of Variant, we want the type to act mostly like the base type so the default logic of TypeDecorator is now overridden to fall back to the underlying wrapped type’s logic. Is mostly relevant for JSON at the moment.

    References: #3859

  • [sql] [bg] Fixed bug where literal_binds compiler flag was not honored by the Insert construct for the “multiple values” feature; the subsequent values are now rendered as literals.

    References: #3880


  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug in new “ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE” feature where the “set” values for the UPDATE clause would not be subject to type-level processing, as normally takes effect to handle both user-defined type level conversions as well as dialect-required conversions, such as those required for JSON datatypes. Additionally, clarified that the keys in the set_ dictionary should match the “key” of the column, if distinct from the column name. A warning is emitted for remaining column names that don’t match column keys; for compatibility reasons, these are emitted as they were previously.

    References: #3888

  • [postgresql] [bug] The postgresql.TIME and postgresql.TIMESTAMP datatypes now support a setting of zero for “precision”; previously a zero would be ignored. Pull request courtesy Ionuț Ciocîrlan.


  • [mysql] [feature] Added a new parameter mysql_prefix supported by the Index construct, allows specification of MySQL-specific prefixes such as “FULLTEXT”. Pull request courtesy Joseph Schorr.

  • [mysql] [bug] The MySQL dialect now will not warn when a reflected column has a “COMMENT” keyword on it, but note however the comment is not yet reflected; this is on the roadmap for a future release. Pull request courtesy Lele Long.

    References: #3867


  • [mssql] [bug] Fixed bug where SQL Server dialects would attempt to select the last row identity for an INSERT from SELECT, failing in the case when the SELECT has no rows. For such a statement, the inline flag is set to True indicating no last primary key should be fetched.

    References: #3876


  • [oracle] [bug] [postgresql] Fixed bug where an INSERT from SELECT where the source table contains an autoincrementing Sequence would fail to compile correctly.

    References: #3877

  • [oracle] [bug] Fixed bug where the “COMPRESSION” keyword was used in the ALL_TABLES query on Oracle 9.2; even though Oracle docs state table compression was introduced in 9i, the actual column is not present until 10.1.

    References: #3875


  • [firebird] [bug] Ported the fix for Oracle quoted-lowercase names to Firebird, so that a table name that is quoted as lower case can be reflected properly including when the table name comes from the get_table_names() inspection function.

    References: #3548


  • [bug] [py3k] Fixed Python 3.6 DeprecationWarnings related to escaped strings without the ‘r’ modifier, and added test coverage for Python 3.6.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.17

    References: #3886

  • [bug] [examples] Fixed two issues with the versioned_history example, one is that the history table now gets autoincrement=False to avoid 1.1’s new errors regarding composite primary keys with autoincrement; the other is that the sqlite_autoincrement flag is now used to ensure on SQLite, unique identifiers are used for the lifespan of a table even if some rows are deleted. Pull request courtesy Carlos García Montoro.

    References: #3872


Released: November 15, 2016


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in Session.bulk_update_mappings() where an alternate-named primary key attribute would not track properly into the UPDATE statement.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3849

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in Session.bulk_save() where an UPDATE would not function correctly in conjunction with a mapping that implements a version id counter.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3781

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where the Mapper.attrs, Mapper.all_orm_descriptors and other derived attributes would fail to refresh when mapper properties or other ORM constructs were added to the mapper/class after these accessors were first called.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3778

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed regression in collections due to #3457 whereby deserialize during pickle or deepcopy would fail to establish all attributes of an ORM collection, causing further mutation operations to fail.

    References: #3852

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed long-standing bug where the “noload” relationship loading strategy would cause backrefs and/or back_populates options to be ignored.

    References: #3845


  • [engine] [bug] Removed long-broken “default_schema_name()” method from Connection. This method was left over from a very old version and was non-working (e.g. would raise). Pull request courtesy Benjamin Dopplinger.



  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed regression caused by the fix in #3807 (version 1.1.0) where we ensured that the tablename was qualified in the WHERE clause of the DO UPDATE portion of PostgreSQL’s ON CONFLICT, however you cannot put the table name in the WHERE clause in the actual ON CONFLICT itself. This was an incorrect assumption, so that portion of the change in #3807 is rolled back.

    References: #3807, #3846


  • [mysql] [feature] Added support for server side cursors to the mysqlclient and pymysql dialects. This feature is available via the Connection.execution_options.stream_results flag as well as the server_side_cursors=True dialect argument in the same way that it has been for psycopg2 on PostgreSQL. Pull request courtesy Roman Podoliaka.

  • [mysql] [bug] MySQL’s native ENUM type supports any non-valid value being sent, and in response will return a blank string. A hardcoded rule to check for “is returning the blank string” has been added to the MySQL implementation for ENUM so that this blank string is returned to the application rather than being rejected as a non-valid value. Note that if your MySQL enum is linking values to objects, you still get the blank string back.

    References: #3841


  • [sqlite] [bug] Added quotes to the PRAGMA directives in the pysqlcipher dialect to support additional cipher arguments appropriately. Pull request courtesy Kevin Jurczyk.

  • [sqlite] [bug] [py3k] Added an optional import for the pysqlcipher3 DBAPI when using the pysqlcipher dialect. This package will attempt to be imported if the Python-2 only pysqlcipher DBAPI is non-present. Pull request courtesy Kevin Jurczyk.


  • [mssql] [bug] Fixed bug in pyodbc dialect (as well as in the mostly non-working adodbapi dialect) whereby a semicolon present in the password or username fields could be interpreted as a separator for another token; the values are now quoted when semicolons are present.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3762


Released: October 27, 2016


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed regression caused by #2677 whereby calling Session.delete() on an object that was already flushed as deleted in that session would fail to set up the object in the identity map (or reject the object), causing flush errors as the object were in a state not accommodated by the unit of work. The pre-1.1 behavior in this case has been restored, which is that the object is put back into the identity map so that the DELETE statement will be attempted again, which emits a warning that the number of expected rows was not matched (unless the row were restored outside of the session).

    References: #3839

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed regression where some Query methods like Query.update() and others would fail if the Query were against a series of mapped columns, rather than the mapped entity as a whole.

    References: #3836


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug involving new value translation and validation feature in Enum whereby using the enum object in a string concatenation would maintain the Enum type as the type of the expression overall, producing missing lookups. A string concatenation against an Enum-typed column now uses String as the datatype of the expression itself.

    References: #3833

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed regression which occurred as a side effect of #2919, which in the less typical case of a user-defined TypeDecorator that was also itself an instance of SchemaType (rather than the implementation being such) would cause the column attachment events to be skipped for the type itself.

    References: #3832


  • [postgresql] [bug] PostgreSQL table reflection will ensure that the Column.autoincrement flag is set to False when reflecting a primary key column that is not of an Integer datatype, even if the default is related to an integer-generating sequence. This can happen if a column is created as SERIAL and the datatype is changed. The autoincrement flag can only be True if the datatype is of integer affinity in the 1.1 series.

    References: #3835


Released: October 17, 2016


  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug involving the rule to disable a joined collection eager loader on the other side of a many-to-one lazy loader, first added in #1495, where the rule would fail if the parent object had some other lazyloader-bound query options associated with it.

    References: #3824

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed self-referential entity, deferred column loading issue in a similar style as that of #3431, #3811 where an entity is present in multiple positions within the row due to self-referential eager loading; when the deferred loader only applies to one of the paths, the “present” column loader will now override the deferred non- load for that entity regardless of row ordering.

    References: #3822


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed a regression caused by a newly added function that performs the “wrap callable” function of sql DefaultGenerator objects, an attribute error raised for __module__ when the default callable was a functools.partial or other object that doesn’t have a __module__ attribute.

    References: #3823

  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql] Fixed regression in Enum type where event handlers were not transferred in the case of the type object being copied, due to a conflicting copy() method added as part of #3250. This copy occurs normally in situations when the column is copied, such as in tometadata() or when using declarative mixins with columns. The event handler not being present would impact the constraint being created for a non-native enumerated type, but more critically the ENUM object on the PostgreSQL backend.

    References: #3827


  • [postgresql] [bug] [sql] Changed the naming convention used when generating bound parameters for a multi-VALUES insert statement, so that the numbered parameter names don’t conflict with the anonymized parameters of a WHERE clause, as is now common in a PostgreSQL ON CONFLICT construct.

    References: #3828


Released: October 7, 2016


  • [mssql] [bug] The “SELECT SERVERPROPERTY” query added in #3810 and #3814 is failing on unknown combinations of Pyodbc and SQL Server. While failure of this function was anticipated, the exception catch was not broad enough so it now catches all forms of pyodbc.Error.

    References: #3820



Released: October 5, 2016


  • [orm] [feature] Enhanced the new “raise” lazy loader strategy to also include a “raise_on_sql” variant, available both via orm.relationship.lazy as well as orm.raiseload(). This variant only raises if the lazy load would actually emit SQL, vs. raising if the lazy loader mechanism is invoked at all.

    References: #3812

  • [orm] [feature] The Query.group_by() method now resets the group by collection if an argument of None is passed, in the same way that Query.order_by() has worked for a long time. Pull request courtesy Iuri Diniz.

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where joined eager loading would fail for a polymorphically- loaded mapper, where the polymorphic_on was set to an un-mapped expression such as a CASE expression.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3800

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where the ArgumentError raised for an invalid bind sent to a Session via Session.bind_mapper(), Session.bind_table(), or the constructor would fail to be correctly raised.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3798

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in subquery eager loading where a subqueryload of an “of_type()” object linked to a second subqueryload of a plain mapped class, or a longer chain of several “of_type()” attributes, would fail to link the joins correctly.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.15

    References: #3773, #3774

  • [orm] [bug] ORM attributes can now be assigned any object that is has a __clause_element__() attribute, which will result in inline SQL the way any ClauseElement class does. This covers other mapped attributes not otherwise transformed by further expression constructs.

    References: #3802

  • [orm] [bug] Made an adjustment to the bug fix first introduced in [ticket:3431] that involves an object appearing in multiple contexts in a single result set, such that an eager loader that would set the related object value to be None will still fire off, thus satisfying the load of that attribute. Previously, the adjustment only honored a non-None value arriving for an eagerly loaded attribute in a secondary row.

    References: #3811

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug in new SessionEvents.persistent_to_deleted() event where the target object could be garbage collected before the event is fired off.

    References: #3808

  • [orm] [bug] The primaryjoin of a relationship() construct can now include a bindparam() object that includes a callable function to generate values. Previously, the lazy loader strategy would be incompatible with this use, and additionally would fail to correctly detect if the “use_get” criteria should be used if the primary key were involved with the bound parameter.

    References: #3767

  • [orm] [bug] An UPDATE emitted from the ORM flush process can now accommodate a SQL expression element for a column within the primary key of an object, if the target database supports RETURNING in order to provide the new value, or if the PK value is set “to itself” for the purposes of bumping some other trigger / onupdate on the column.

    References: #3801

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where the “simple many-to-one” condition that allows lazy loading to use get() from identity map would fail to be invoked if the primaryjoin of the relationship had multiple clauses separated by AND which were not in the same order as that of the primary key columns being compared in each clause. This ordering difference occurs for a composite foreign key where the table-bound columns on the referencing side were not in the same order in the .c collection as the primary key columns on the referenced side….which in turn occurs a lot if one is using declarative mixins and/or declared_attr to set up columns.

    References: #3788

  • [orm] [bug] An exception is raised when two @validates decorators on a mapping make use of the same name. Only one validator of a certain name at a time is supported, there’s no mechanism to chain these together, as the order of the validators at the level of function decorator can’t be made deterministic.

    References: #3776

  • [orm] [bug] Mapper errors raised during configure_mappers() now explicitly include the name of the originating mapper in the exception message to help in those situations where the wrapped exception does not itself include the source mapper. Pull request courtesy John Perkins.

  • [orm] [change] Passing False to Query.order_by() in order to cancel all order by’s is deprecated; there is no longer any difference between calling this method with False or with None.

orm declarative

  • [change] [declarative] [orm] Constructing a declarative base class that inherits from another class will also inherit its docstring. This means as_declarative() acts more like a normal class decorator.


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in Table where the internal method _reset_exported() would corrupt the state of the object. This method is intended for selectable objects and is called by the ORM in some cases; an erroneous mapper configuration would could lead the ORM to call this on a Table object.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.15

    References: #3755

  • [sql] [bug] Execution options can now be propagated from within a statement at compile time to the outermost statement, so that if an embedded element wants to set “autocommit” to be True for example, it can propagate this to the enclosing statement. Currently, this feature is enabled for a DML-oriented CTE embedded inside of a SELECT statement, e.g. INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE inside of SELECT.

    References: #3805

  • [sql] [bug] A string sent as a column default via the Column.server_default parameter is now escaped for quotes.

    References: #3809

  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql] Added compiler-level flags used by PostgreSQL to place additional parenthesis than would normally be generated by precedence rules around operations involving JSON, HSTORE indexing operators as well as within their operands since it has been observed that PostgreSQL’s precedence rules for at least the HSTORE indexing operator is not consistent between 9.4 and 9.5.

    References: #3806

  • [sql] [bug] [mysql] The BaseException exception class is now intercepted by the exception-handling routines of Connection, and includes handling by the handle_error() event. The Connection is now invalidated by default in the case of a system level exception that is not a subclass of Exception, including KeyboardInterrupt and the greenlet GreenletExit class, to prevent further operations from occurring upon a database connection that is in an unknown and possibly corrupted state. The MySQL drivers are most targeted by this change however the change is across all DBAPIs.

    References: #3803

  • [sql] [bug] The “eq” and “ne” operators are no longer part of the list of “associative” operators, while they remain considered to be “commutative”. This allows an expression like (x == y) == z to be maintained at the SQL level with parenthesis. Pull request courtesy John Passaro.

    References: #3799

  • [sql] [bug] Stringify of expression with unnamed Column objects, as occurs in lots of situations including ORM error reporting, will now render the name in string context as “<name unknown>” rather than raising a compile error.

    References: #3789

  • [sql] [bug] Raise a more descriptive exception / message when ClauseElement or non-SQLAlchemy objects that are not “executable” are erroneously passed to .execute(); a new exception ObjectNotExecutableError is raised consistently in all cases.

    References: #3786

  • [sql] [bug] [mysql] [postgresql] Fixed regression in JSON datatypes where the “literal processor” for a JSON index value would not be invoked. The native String and Integer datatypes are now called upon from within the JSONIndexType and JSONPathType. This is applied to the generic, PostgreSQL, and MySQL JSON types and also has a dependency on #3766.

    References: #3765

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug where Index would fail to extract columns from compound SQL expressions if those SQL expressions were wrapped inside of an ORM-style __clause_element__() construct. This bug exists in 1.0.x as well, however in 1.1 is more noticeable as hybrid_property @expression now returns a wrapped element.

    References: #3763


  • [postgresql] [bug] An adjustment to ON CONFLICT such that the “inserted_primary_key” logic is able to accommodate the case where there’s no INSERT or UPDATE and there’s no net change. The value comes out as None in this case, rather than failing on an exception.

    References: #3813

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in new PG “on conflict” construct where columns including those of the “excluded” namespace would not be table-qualified in the WHERE clauses in the statement.

    References: #3807


  • [mysql] [bug] Added support for parsing MySQL/Connector boolean and integer arguments within the URL query string: connection_timeout, connect_timeout, pool_size, get_warnings, raise_on_warnings, raw, consume_results, ssl_verify_cert, force_ipv6, pool_reset_session, compress, allow_local_infile, use_pure.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.15

    References: #3787

  • [mysql] [bug] Fixed bug where the “literal_binds” flag would not be propagated to a CAST expression under MySQL.

    References: #3766


  • [mssql] [bug] Changed the query used to get “default schema name”, from one that queries the database principals table to using the “schema_name()” function, as issues have been reported that the former system was unavailable on the Azure Data Warehouse edition. It is hoped that this will finally work across all SQL Server versions and authentication styles.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3810

  • [mssql] [bug] Updated the server version info scheme for pyodbc to use SQL Server SERVERPROPERTY(), rather than relying upon pyodbc.SQL_DBMS_VER, which continues to be unreliable particularly with FreeTDS.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3814

  • [mssql] [bug] Added error code 20017 “unexpected EOF from the server” to the list of disconnect exceptions that result in a connection pool reset. Pull request courtesy Ken Robbins.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16


  • [bug] [orm.declarative] Fixed bug where setting up a single-table inh subclass of a joined-table subclass which included an extra column would corrupt the foreign keys collection of the mapped table, thereby interfering with the initialization of relationships.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.16

    References: #3797


Released: July 26, 2016


  • [orm] [change] Removed a warning that dates back to 0.4 which emits when a same-named relationship is placed on two mappers that inherits via joined or single table inheritance. The warning does not apply to the current unit of work implementation.

    References: #3749


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in new CTE feature for update/insert/delete stated as a CTE inside of an enclosing statement (typically SELECT) whereby oninsert and onupdate values weren’t called upon for the embedded statement.

    References: #3745

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug in new CTE feature for update/insert/delete whereby an anonymous (e.g. no name passed) CTE construct around the statement would fail.

    References: #3744


  • [postgresql] [bug] Fixed bug whereby TypeDecorator and Variant types were not deeply inspected enough by the PostgreSQL dialect to determine if SMALLSERIAL or BIGSERIAL needed to be rendered rather than SERIAL.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.14

    References: #3739


  • [oracle] [bug] Fixed bug in Select.with_for_update.of, where the Oracle “rownum” approach to LIMIT/OFFSET would fail to accommodate for the expressions inside the “OF” clause, which must be stated at the topmost level referring to expression within the subquery. The expressions are now added to the subquery if needed.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.14

    References: #3741


  • [feature] [ext] Added a “default” parameter to the new sqlalchemy.ext.indexable extension.

  • [bug] [ext] Fixed bug in sqlalchemy.ext.baked where the unbaking of a subquery eager loader query would fail due to a variable scoping issue, when multiple subquery loaders were involved. Pull request courtesy Mark Hahnenberg.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.15

    References: #3743

  • [bug] [ext] sqlalchemy.ext.indexable will intercept IndexError as well as KeyError when raising as AttributeError.


Released: July 1, 2016


  • [sql] [bug] Fixed issue in SQL math negation operator where the type of the expression would no longer be the numeric type of the original. This would cause issues where the type determined result set behaviors.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.14

    References: #3735

  • [sql] [bug] Fixed bug whereby the __getstate__ / __setstate__ methods for sqlalchemy.util.Properties were non-working due to the transition in the 1.0 series to __slots__. The issue potentially impacted some third-party applications. Pull request courtesy Pieter Mulder.

    This change is also backported to: 1.0.14

    References: #3728

  • [sql] [bug] The processing performed by the Boolean datatype for backends that only feature integer types has been made consistent between the pure Python and C-extension versions, in that the C-extension version will accept any integer value from the database as a boolean, not just zero and one; additionally, non-boolean integer values being sent to the database are coerced to exactly zero or one, instead of being passed as the original integer value.

    References: #3730

  • [sql] [bug] Rolled back the validation rules a bit in Enum to allow unknown string values to pass through, unless the flag validate_string=True is passed to the Enum; any other kind of object is still of course rejected. While the immediate use is to allow comparisons to enums with LIKE, the fact that this use exists indicates there may be more unknown-string-comparison use cases than we expected, which hints that perhaps there are some unknown string-INSERT cases too.

    References: #3725


  • [postgresql] [bug] [ext] Made a slight behavioral change in the sqlalchemy.ext.compiler extension, whereby the existing compilation schemes for an established construct would be removed if that construct itself didn’t already have its own dedicated __visit_name__. This was a rare occurrence in 1.0, however in 1.1 postgresql.ARRAY subclasses sqltypes.ARRAY and has this behavior. As a result, setting up a compilation handler for another dialect such as SQLite would render the main postgresql.ARRAY object no longer compilable.

    References: #3732



Released: June 16, 2016


  • [orm] [feature] [ext] A new ORM extension Indexable is added, which allows construction of Python attributes which refer to specific elements of “indexed” structures such as arrays and JSON fields. Pull request courtesy Jeong YunWon.

  • [orm] [feature] Added new flag Session.bulk_insert_mappings.render_nulls which allows an ORM bulk INSERT to occur with NULL values rendered; this bypasses server side defaults, however allows all statements to be formed with the same set of columns, allowing them to be batched. Pull request courtesy Tobias Sauerwein.

  • [orm] [feature] Added new event AttributeEvents.init_scalar(), as well as a new example suite illustrating its use. This event can be used to provide a Core-generated default value to a Python-side attribute before the object is persisted.

    References: #1311

  • [orm] [feature] Added AutomapBase.prepare.schema to the AutomapBase.prepare() method, to indicate which schema tables should be reflected from if not the default schema. Pull request courtesy Josh Marlow.

  • [orm] [feature] Added new parameter orm.mapper.passive_deletes to available mapper options. This allows a DELETE to proceed for a joined-table inheritance mapping against the base table only, while allowing for ON DELETE CASCADE to handle deleting the row from the subclass tables.

    References: #2349

  • [orm] [feature] Calling str() on a core SQL construct has been made more “friendly”, when the construct contains non-standard SQL elements such as RETURNING, array index operations, or dialect-specific or custom datatypes. A string is now returned in these cases rendering an approximation of the construct (typically the PostgreSQL-style version of it) rather than raising an error.

    References: #3631

  • [orm] [feature] The str() call for Query will now take into account the Engine to which the Session is bound, when generating the string form of the SQL, so that the actual SQL that would be emitted to the database is shown, if possible. Previously, only the engine associated with the MetaData to which the mappings are associated would be used, if present. If no bind can be located either on the Session or on the MetaData to which the mappings are associated, then the “default” dialect is used to render the SQL, as was the case previously.

    References: #3081

  • [orm] [feature] The SessionEvents suite now includes events to allow unambiguous tracking of all object lifecycle state transitions in terms of the Session itself, e.g. pending, transient, persistent, detached. The state of the object within each event is also defined.

    References: #2677

  • [orm] [feature] Added a new session lifecycle state deleted. This new state represents an object that has been deleted from the persistent state and will move to the detached state once the transaction is committed. This resolves the long-standing issue that objects which were deleted existed in a gray area between persistent and detached. The InstanceState.persistent accessor will no longer report on a deleted object as persistent; the InstanceState.deleted accessor will instead be True for these objects, until they become detached.

    References: #2677

  • [orm] [feature] Added new checks for the common error case of passing mapped classes or mapped instances into contexts where they are interpreted as SQL bound parameters; a new exception is raised for this.

    References: #3321

  • [orm] [feature] Added new relationship loading strategy orm.raiseload() (also accessible via lazy='raise'). This strategy behaves almost like orm.noload() but instead of returning None it raises an InvalidRequestError. Pull request courtesy Adrian Moennich.

    References: #3512

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed an issue where a many-to-one change of an object from one parent to another could work inconsistently when combined with an un-flushed modification of the foreign key attribute. The attribute move now considers the database-committed value of the foreign key in order to locate the “previous” parent of the object being moved. This allows events to fire off correctly including backref events. Previously, these events would not always fire. Applications which may have relied on the previously broken behavior may be affected.

    References: #3708

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where deferred columns would inadvertently be set up for database load on the next object-wide unexpire, when the object were merged into the session with session.merge(obj, load=False).

    References: #3488

  • [orm] [bug] [mysql] Further continuing on the common MySQL exception case of a savepoint being cancelled first covered in #2696, the failure mode in which the Session is placed when a SAVEPOINT vanishes before rollback has been improved to allow the Session to still function outside of that savepoint. It is assumed that the savepoint operation failed and was cancelled.

    References: #3680

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where a newly inserted instance that is rolled back would still potentially cause persistence conflicts on the next transaction, because the instance would not be checked that it was expired. This fix will resolve a large class of cases that erroneously cause the “New instance with identity X conflicts with persistent instance Y” error.

    References: #3677

  • [orm] [bug] An improvement to the workings of Query.correlate() such that when a “polymorphic” entity is used which represents a straight join of several tables, the statement will ensure that all the tables within the join are part of what’s correlating.

    References: #3662

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug which would cause an eagerly loaded many-to-one attribute to not be loaded, if the joined eager load were from a row where the same entity were present multiple times, some calling for the attribute to be eagerly loaded and others not. The logic here is revised to take in the attribute even though a different loader path has handled the parent entity already.

    References: #3431

  • [orm] [bug] A refinement to the logic which adds columns to the resulting SQL when Query.distinct() is combined with Query.order_by() such that columns which are already present will not be added a second time, even if they are labeled with a different name. Regardless of this change, the extra columns added to the SQL have never been returned in the final result, so this change only impacts the string form of the statement as well as its behavior when used in a Core execution context. Additionally, columns are no longer added when the DISTINCT ON format is used, provided the query is not wrapped inside a subquery due to joined eager loading.

    References: #3641

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed issue where two same-named relationships that refer to a base class and a concrete-inherited subclass would raise an error if those relationships were set up using “backref”, while setting up the identical configuration using relationship() instead with the conflicting names would succeed, as is allowed in the case of a concrete mapping.

    References: #3630

  • [orm] [bug] The Session.merge() method now tracks pending objects by primary key before emitting an INSERT, and merges distinct objects with duplicate primary keys together as they are encountered, which is essentially semi-deterministic at best. This behavior matches what happens already with persistent objects.

    References: #3601

  • [orm] [bug] Fixed bug where the “single table inheritance” criteria would be added onto the end of a query in some inappropriate situations, such as when querying from an exists() of a single-inheritance subclass.

    References: #3582

  • [orm] [bug] Added a new type-level modifier TypeEngine.evaluates_none() which indicates to the ORM that a positive set of None should be persisted as the value NULL, instead of omitting the column from the INSERT statement. This feature is used both as part of the implementation for #3514 as well as a standalone feature available on any type.

    References: #3250

  • [orm] [bug] Internal calls to “bookkeeping” functions within Session.bulk_save_objects() and related bulk methods have been scaled back to the extent that this functionality is not currently used, e.g. checks for column default values to be fetched after an INSERT or UPDATE statement.

    References: #3526

  • [orm] [bug] [postgresql] Additional fixes have been made regarding the value of None in conjunction with the PostgreSQL postgresql.JSON type. When the JSON.none_as_null flag is left at its default value of False, the ORM will now correctly insert the JSON “‘null’” string into the column whenever the value on the ORM object is set to the value None or when the value None is used with Session.bulk_insert_mappings(), including if the column has a default or server default on it.

    References: #3514

  • [orm] [change] The Mapper.order_by parameter is deprecated. This is an old parameter no longer relevant to how SQLAlchemy works, once the Query object was introduced. By deprecating it we establish that we aren’t supporting non-working use cases and that we encourage applications to move off of the use of this parameter.

    References: #3394

  • [orm] [change] The Session.weak_identity_map parameter is deprecated. See the new recipe at Session Referencing Behavior for an event-based approach to maintaining strong identity map behavior.

    References: #2677


  • [engine] [feature] Added connection pool events ConnectionEvents.close(), ConnectionEvents.detach(), ConnectionEvents.close_detached().

  • [engine] [feature] All string formatting of bound parameter sets and result rows for logging, exception, and repr() purposes now truncate very large scalar values within each collection, including an “N characters truncated” notation, similar to how the display for large multiple-parameter sets are themselves truncated.

    References: #2837

  • [engine] [feature] Multi-tenancy schema translation for Table objects is added. This supports the use case of an application that uses the same set of Table objects in many schemas, such as schema-per-user. A new execution option Connection.execution_options.schema_translate_map is added.

    References: #2685

  • [engine] [feature] Added a new entrypoint system to the engine to allow “plugins” to be stated in the query string for a URL. Custom plugins can be written which will be given the chance up front to alter and/or consume the engine’s URL and keyword arguments, and then at engine create time will be given the engine itself to allow additional modifications or event registration. Plugins are written as a subclass of CreateEnginePlugin; see that class for details.

    References: #3536



  • [schema] [enhancement] The default generation functions passed to Column objects are now run through “update_wrapper”, or an equivalent function if a callable non-function is passed, so that introspection tools preserve the name and docstring of the wrapped function. Pull request courtesy hsum.




  • [sqlite] [feature] The SQLite dialect now reflects ON UPDATE and ON DELETE phrases within foreign key constraints. Pull request courtesy Michal Petrucha.

  • [sqlite] [feature] The SQLite dialect now reflects the names of primary key constraints. Pull request courtesy Diana Clarke.

    References: #3629

  • [sqlite] [bug] The workaround for right-nested joins on SQLite, where they are rewritten as subqueries in order to work around SQLite’s lack of support for this syntax, is lifted when SQLite version 3.7.16 or greater is detected.

    References: #3634

  • [sqlite] [bug] The workaround for SQLite’s unexpected delivery of column names as tablename.columnname for some kinds of queries is now disabled when SQLite version 3.10.0 or greater is detected.

    References: #3633

  • [sqlite] [change] Added support to the SQLite dialect for the Inspector.get_schema_names() method to work with SQLite; pull request courtesy Brian Van Klaveren. Also repaired support for creation of indexes with schemas as well as reflection of foreign key constraints in schema-bound tables.


  • [mssql] [feature] The mssql_clustered flag available on UniqueConstraint, PrimaryKeyConstraint, Index now defaults to None, and can be set to False which will render the NONCLUSTERED keyword in particular for a primary key, allowing a different index to be used as “clustered”. Pull request courtesy Saulius Žemaitaitis.

  • [mssql] [feature] Added basic isolation level support to the SQL Server dialects via create_engine.isolation_level and Connection.execution_options.isolation_level parameters.

    References: #3534

  • [mssql] [bug] Adjustments to the mxODBC dialect to make use of the BinaryNull symbol when appropriate in conjunction with the VARBINARY data type. Pull request courtesy Sheila Allen.

  • [mssql] [bug] Fixed issue where the SQL Server dialect would reflect a string- or other variable-length column type with unbounded length by assigning the token "max" to the length attribute of the string. While using the "max" token explicitly is supported by the SQL Server dialect, it isn’t part of the normal contract of the base string types, and instead the length should just be left as None. The dialect now assigns the length to None on reflection of the type so that the type behaves normally in other contexts.

    References: #3504

  • [mssql] [change] The legacy_schema_aliasing flag, introduced in version 1.0.5 as part of #3424 to allow disabling of the MSSQL dialect’s attempts to create aliases for schema-qualified tables, now defaults to False; the old behavior is now disabled unless explicitly turned on.

    References: #3434


  • [feature] [ext] Added MutableSet and MutableList helper classes to the Mutation Tracking extension. Pull request courtesy Jeong YunWon.

    References: #3297

  • [bug] [ext] The docstring specified on a hybrid property or method is now honored at the class level, allowing it to work with tools like Sphinx autodoc. The mechanics here necessarily involve some wrapping of expressions to occur for hybrid properties, which may cause them to appear differently using introspection.

    References: #3653

  • [bug] [sybase] The unsupported Sybase dialect now raises NotImplementedError when attempting to compile a query that includes “offset”; Sybase has no straightforward “offset” feature.

    References: #2278

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