Release: 1.4.25 current release | Release Date: September 22, 2021

SQLAlchemy 1.4 Documentation

Changes and Migration

Project Versions

1.4 Changelog

This document details individual issue-level changes made throughout 1.4 releases. For a narrative overview of what’s new in 1.4, see What’s New in SQLAlchemy 1.4?.

1.4.26

no release date

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where ORM loaded objects could not be pickled in cases where loader options making use of "*" were used in certain combinations, such as combining the joinedload() loader strategy with raiseload('*') of sub-elements.

    References: #7134

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug where iterating a Result from a Session after that Session were closed would partially attach objects to that session in an essentially invalid state. It now raises an exception with a link to new documentation if an un-buffered result is iterated from a Session that was closed or otherwise had the Session.expunge_all() method called after that Result was generated. The “prebuffer_rows” execution option, as is used by the asyncio extension, may be used to produce a Result where the ORM objects are prebuffered, and in this case iterating the result will produce a series of detached objects.

    References: #7128

  • [orm] [bug]

    Related to #7153, fixed an issue where result column lookups would fail for “adapted” SELECT statements that selected for “constant” value expressions most typically the NULL expression, as would occur in such places as joined eager loading in conjunction with limit/offset. This was overall a regression due to issue #6259 which removed all “adaption” for constants like NULL, “true”, and “false” when rewriting expressions in a SQL statement, but this broke the case where the same adaption logic were used to resolve the constant to a labeled expression for the purposes of result set targeting.

    References: #7154

  • [orm] [bug]

    Improved the exception message generated when configuring a mapping with joined table inheritance where the two tables either have no foreign key relationships set up, or where they have multiple foreign key relationships set up. The message is now ORM specific and includes context that the Mapper.inherit_condition parameter may be needed particularly for the ambiguous foreign keys case.

  • [orm] [bug]

    An extra layer of warning messages has been added to the functionality of Query.join() and the ORM version of Select.join(), where a few places where “automatic aliasing” continues to occur will now be called out as a pattern to avoid, mostly specific to the area of joined table inheritance where classes that share common base tables are being joined together without using explicit aliases. One case emits a legacy warning for a pattern that’s not recommended, the other case is fully deprecated.

    The automatic aliasing within ORM join() which occurs for overlapping mapped tables does not work consistently with all APIs such as contains_eager(), and rather than continue to try to make these use cases work everywhere, replacing with a more user-explicit pattern is clearer, less prone to bugs and simplifies SQLAlchemy’s internals further.

    The warnings include links to the errors.rst page where each pattern is demonstrated along with the recommended pattern to fix.

    References: #6972, #6974

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue with with_loader_criteria() feature where ON criteria would not be added to a JOIN for a query of the form select(A).join(B), stating a target while making use of an implicit ON clause.

    References: #7189

  • [orm]

    Passing a Query object to Session.execute() is not the intended use of this object, and will now raise a deprecation warning.

    References: #6284

examples

  • [examples] [bug]

    Repaired the examples in examples/versioned_rows to use SQLAlchemy 1.4 APIs correctly; these examples had been missed when API changes like removing “passive” from Session.is_modified() were made as well as the do_orm_execute() event hook were added.

    References: #7169

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the deprecation warning for the URL constructor which indicates that the URL.create() method should be used would not emit if a full positional argument list of seven arguments were passed; additionally, validation of URL arguments will now occur if the constructor is called in this way, which was being skipped previously.

    References: #7130

  • [engine] [bug] [postgresql]

    The Inspector.reflect_table() method now supports reflecting tables that do not have user defined columns. This allows MetaData.reflect() to properly complete reflection on databases that contain such tables. Currently, only PostgreSQL is known to support such a construct among the common database backends.

    References: #3247

  • [engine] [bug]

    Implemented proper __reduce__() methods for all SQLAlchemy exception objects to ensure they all support clean round trips when pickling, as exception objects are often serialized for the purposes of various debugging tools.

    References: #7077

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Account for schema in table() fullname attribute.

    References: #7061

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed an inconsistency in the any_() / all_() functions / methods where the special behavior these functions have of “flipping” the expression such that the “ANY” / “ALL” expression is always on the right side would not function if the comparison were against the None value, that is, “column.any_() == None” should produce the same SQL expression as “null() == column.any_()”. Added more docs to clarify this as well, plus mentions that any_() / all_() generally supersede the ARRAY version “any()” / “all()”.

    References: #7140

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where “expanding IN” would fail to function correctly with datatypes that use the TypeEngine.bind_expression() method, where the method would need to be applied to each element of the IN expression rather than the overall IN expression itself.

    References: #7177

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where SQL queries using the FunctionElement.within_group() construct could not be pickled, typically when using the sqlalchemy.ext.serializer extension but also for general generic pickling.

    References: #6520

  • [sql] [bug]

    Repaired issue in new HasCTE.cte.nesting parameter introduced with #4123 where a recursive CTE using HasCTE.cte.recursive in typical conjunction with UNION would not compile correctly. Additionally makes some adjustments so that the CTE construct creates a correct cache key. Pull request courtesy Eric Masseran.

    References: #4123

  • [sql] [bug]

    Adjusted the “column disambiguation” logic that’s new in 1.4, where the same expression repeated gets an “extra anonymous” label, so that the logic more aggressively deduplicates those labels when the repeated element is the same Python expression object each time, as occurs in cases like when using “singleton” values like null(). This is based on the observation that at least some databases (e.g. MySQL, but not SQLite) will raise an error if the same label is repeated inside of a subquery.

    References: #7153

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in mypy plugin to improve upon some issues detecting Enum() SQL types containing custom Python enumeration classes. Pull request courtesy Hiroshi Ogawa.

    References: #6435

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Added a “disconnect” condition for the “SSL SYSCALL error: Bad address” error message as reported by psycopg2. Pull request courtesy Zeke Brechtel.

    References: #5387

  • [postgresql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where IN expressions against a series of array elements, as can be done with PostgreSQL, would fail to function correctly due to multiple issues within the “expanding IN” feature of SQLAlchemy Core that was standardized in version 1.4. The psycopg2 dialect now makes use of the TypeEngine.bind_expression() method with ARRAY to portably apply the correct casts to elements. The asyncpg dialect was not affected by this issue as it applies bind-level casts at the driver level rather than at the compiler level.

    References: #7177

mysql

  • [mysql] [bug] [mariadb]

    Fixes to accommodate for the MariaDB 10.6 series, including backwards incompatible changes in both the mariadb-connector Python driver (supported on SQLAlchemy 1.4 only) as well as the native 10.6 client libraries that are used automatically by the mysqlclient DBAPI (applies to both 1.3 and 1.4). The “utf8mb3” encoding symbol is now reported by these client libraries when the encoding is stated as “utf8”, leading to lookup and encoding errors within the MySQL dialect that does not expect this symbol. Updates to both the MySQL base library to accommodate for this utf8mb3 symbol being reported as well as to the test suite. Thanks to Georg Richter for support.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.25

    References: #7115, #7136

  • [mysql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in MySQL match() construct where passing a clause expression such as bindparam() or other SQL expression for the “against” parameter would fail. Pull request courtesy Anton Kovalevich.

    References: #7144

mssql

  • [mssql] [usecase]

    Added reflection support for SQL Server foreign key options, including “ON UPDATE” and “ON DELETE” values of “CASCADE” and “SET NULL”.

  • [mssql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed bug in SQL Server DATETIMEOFFSET where the ODBC implementation would not generate the correct DDL, for cases where the type were converted using the dialect.type_descriptor() method, the usage of which is illustrated in some documented examples for TypeDecorator, though not necessary for most datatypes. Regression was introduced by #6366. As part of this change, the full list of SQL Server date types have been amended to return a “dialect impl” that generates the same DDL name as the supertype.

    References: #7129

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fixed issue with Inspector.has_table() where it would return False if a local temp table with the same name from a different session happened to be returned first when querying tempdb. This is a continuation of #6910 which accounted for the temp table existing only in the alternate session and not the current one.

    References: #7168

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fixed issue with Inspector.get_foreign_keys() where foreign keys were omitted if they were established against a unique index instead of a unique constraint.

    References: #7160

misc

  • [bug]

    Add missing methods added in #6991 to scoped_session and async_scoped_session.

    References: #7103

1.4.25

Released: September 22, 2021

platform

  • [platform] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression due to #7024 where the reorganization of the “platform machine” names used by the greenlet dependency mis-spelled “aarch64” and additionally omitted uppercase “AMD64” as is needed for Windows machines. Pull request courtesy James Dow.

    References: #7024

1.4.24

Released: September 22, 2021

platform

  • [platform] [bug]

    Further adjusted the “greenlet” package specifier in setup.cfg to use a long chain of “or” expressions, so that the comparison of platform_machine to a specific identifier matches only the complete string.

    References: #7024

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Added loader options to Session.merge() and AsyncSession.merge() via a new Session.merge.options parameter, which will apply the given loader options to the get() used internally by merge, allowing eager loading of relationships etc. to be applied when the merge process loads a new object. Pull request courtesy Daniel Stone.

    References: #6955

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed ORM issue where column expressions passed to query() or ORM-enabled select() would be deduplicated on the identity of the object, such as a phrase like select(A.id, null(), null()) would produce only one “NULL” expression, which previously was not the case in 1.3. However, the change also allows for ORM expressions to render as given as well, such as select(A.data, A.data) will produce a result row with two columns.

    References: #6979

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue in recently repaired Query.with_entities() method where the flag that determines automatic uniquing for legacy ORM Query objects only would be set to True inappropriately in cases where the with_entities() call would be setting the Query to return column-only rows, which are not uniqued.

    References: #6924

engine

  • [engine] [usecase] [asyncio]

    Improve the interface used by adapted drivers, like the asyncio ones, to access the actual connection object returned by the driver.

    The _ConnectionFairy object has two new attributes:

    • _ConnectionFairy.dbapi_connection always represents a DBAPI compatible object. For pep-249 drivers, this is the DBAPI connection as it always has been, previously accessed under the .connection attribute. For asyncio drivers that SQLAlchemy adapts into a pep-249 interface, the returned object will normally be a SQLAlchemy adaption object called AdaptedConnection.

    • _ConnectionFairy.driver_connection always represents the actual connection object maintained by the third party pep-249 DBAPI or async driver in use. For standard pep-249 DBAPIs, this will always be the same object as that of the dbapi_connection. For an asyncio driver, it will be the underlying asyncio-only connection object.

    The .connection attribute remains available and is now a legacy alias of .dbapi_connection.

    References: #6832

  • [engine] [usecase] [orm]

    Added new methods Session.scalars(), Connection.scalars(), AsyncSession.scalars() and AsyncSession.stream_scalars(), which provide a short cut to the use case of receiving a row-oriented Result object and converting it to a ScalarResult object via the Result.scalars() method, to return a list of values rather than a list of rows. The new methods are analogous to the long existing Session.scalar() and Connection.scalar() methods used to return a single value from the first row only. Pull request courtesy Miguel Grinberg.

    References: #6990

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where the ability of the ConnectionEvents.before_execute() method to alter the SQL statement object passed, returning the new object to be invoked, was inadvertently removed. This behavior has been restored.

    References: #6913

  • [engine] [bug]

    Ensure that str() is called on the an URL.create.password argument, allowing usage of objects that implement the __str__() method as password attributes. Also clarified that one such object is not appropriate to dynamically change the password for each database connection; the approaches at Generating dynamic authentication tokens should be used instead.

    References: #6958

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed issue in URL where validation of “drivername” would not appropriately respond to the None value where a string were expected.

    References: #6983

  • [engine] [bug] [postgresql]

    Fixed issue where an engine that had create_engine.implicit_returning set to False would fail to function when PostgreSQL’s “fast insertmany” feature were used in conjunction with a Sequence, as well as if any kind of “executemany” with “return_defaults()” were used in conjunction with a Sequence. Note that PostgreSQL “fast insertmany” uses “RETURNING” by definition, when the SQL statement is passed to the driver; overall, the create_engine.implicit_returning flag is legacy and has no real use in modern SQLAlchemy, and will be deprecated in a separate change.

    References: #6963

sql

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Added new parameter HasCTE.cte.nesting to the CTE constructor and HasCTE.cte() method, which flags the CTE as one which should remain nested within an enclosing CTE, rather than being moved to the top level of the outermost SELECT. While in the vast majority of cases there is no difference in SQL functionality, users have identified various edge-cases where true nesting of CTE constructs is desirable. Much thanks to Eric Masseran for lots of work on this intricate feature.

    References: #4123

  • [sql] [bug]

    Implemented missing methods in FunctionElement which, while unused, would lead pylint to report them as unimplemented abstract methods.

    References: #7052

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed a two issues where combinations of select() and join() when adapted to form a copy of the element would not completely copy the state of all column objects associated with subqueries. A key problem this caused is that usage of the ClauseElement.params() method (which should probably be moved into a legacy category as it is inefficient and error prone) would leave copies of the old BindParameter objects around, leading to issues in correctly setting the parameters at execution time.

    References: #7055

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue related to new HasCTE.add_cte() feature where pairing two “INSERT..FROM SELECT” statements simultaneously would lose track of the two independent SELECT statements, leading to the wrong SQL.

    References: #7036

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where using ORM column expressions as keys in the list of dictionaries passed to Insert.values() for “multi-valued insert” would not be processed correctly into the correct column expressions.

    References: #7060

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue where mypy plugin would crash when interpreting a query_expression() construct.

    References: #6950

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in mypy plugin where columns on a mixin would not be correctly interpreted if the mapped class relied upon a __tablename__ routine that came from a superclass.

    References: #6937

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [feature] [mysql]

    Added initial support for the asyncmy asyncio database driver for MySQL and MariaDB. This driver is very new, however appears to be the only current alternative to the aiomysql driver which currently appears to be unmaintained and is not working with current Python versions. Much thanks to long2ice for the pull request for this dialect.

    See also

    asyncmy

    References: #6993

  • [asyncio] [usecase]

    The AsyncSession now supports overriding which Session it uses as the proxied instance. A custom Session class can be passed using the AsyncSession.sync_session_class parameter or by subclassing the AsyncSession and specifying a custom AsyncSession.sync_session_class.

    References: #6746

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Fixed a bug in AsyncSession.execute() and AsyncSession.stream() that required execution_options to be an instance of immutabledict when defined. It now correctly accepts any mapping.

    References: #6943

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Added missing **kw arguments to the AsyncSession.connection() method.

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Deprecate usage of scoped_session with asyncio drivers. When using Asyncio the async_scoped_session should be used instead.

    References: #6746

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Qualify version() call to avoid shadowing issues if a different search path is configured by the user.

    References: #6912

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    The ENUM datatype is PostgreSQL-native and therefore should not be used with the native_enum=False flag. This flag is now ignored if passed to the ENUM datatype and a warning is emitted; previously the flag would cause the type object to fail to function correctly.

    References: #6106

sqlite

  • [sqlite] [bug]

    Fixed bug where the error message for SQLite invalid isolation level on the pysqlite driver would fail to indicate that “AUTOCOMMIT” is one of the valid isolation levels.

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [reflection]

    Fixed an issue where sqlalchemy.engine.reflection.has_table() returned True for local temporary tables that actually belonged to a different SQL Server session (connection). An extra check is now performed to ensure that the temp table detected is in fact owned by the current session.

    References: #6910

oracle

  • [oracle] [performance] [bug]

    Added a CAST(VARCHAR2(128)) to the “table name”, “owner”, and other DDL-name parameters as used in reflection queries against Oracle system views such as ALL_TABLES, ALL_TAB_CONSTRAINTS, etc to better enable indexing to take place against these columns, as they previously would be implicitly handled as NVARCHAR2 due to Python’s use of Unicode for strings; these columns are documented in all Oracle versions as being VARCHAR2 with lengths varying from 30 to 128 characters depending on server version. Additionally, test support has been enabled for Unicode-named DDL structures against Oracle databases.

    References: #4486

1.4.23

Released: August 18, 2021

general

  • [general] [bug]

    The setup requirements have been modified such greenlet is a default requirement only for those platforms that are well known for greenlet to be installable and for which there is already a pre-built binary on pypi; the current list is x86_64 aarch64 ppc64le amd64 win32. For other platforms, greenlet will not install by default, which should enable installation and test suite running of SQLAlchemy 1.4 on platforms that don’t support greenlet, excluding any asyncio features. In order to install with the greenlet dependency included on a machine architecture outside of the above list, the [asyncio] extra may be included by running pip install sqlalchemy[asyncio] which will then attempt to install greenlet.

    Additionally, the test suite has been repaired so that tests can complete fully when greenlet is not installed, with appropriate skips for asyncio-related tests.

    References: #6136

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Added new attribute Select.columns_clause_froms that will retrieve the FROM list implied by the columns clause of the Select statement. This differs from the old Select.froms collection in that it does not perform any ORM compilation steps, which necessarily deannotate the FROM elements and do things like compute joinedloads etc., which makes it not an appropriate candidate for the Select.select_from() method. Additionally adds a new parameter Select.with_only_columns.maintain_column_froms that transfers this collection to Select.select_from() before replacing the columns collection.

    In addition, the Select.froms is renamed to Select.get_final_froms(), to stress that this collection is not a simple accessor and is instead calculated given the full state of the object, which can be an expensive call when used in an ORM context.

    Additionally fixes a regression involving the with_only_columns() function to support applying criteria to column elements that were replaced with either Select.with_only_columns() or Query.with_entities() , which had broken as part of #6503 released in 1.4.19.

    References: #6808

  • [orm] [bug] [sql]

    Fixed issue where a bound parameter object that was “cloned” would cause a name conflict in the compiler, if more than one clone of this parameter were used at the same time in a single statement. This could occur in particular with things like ORM single table inheritance queries that indicated the same “discriminator” value multiple times in one query.

    References: #6824

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in loader strategies where the use of the Load.options() method, particularly when nesting multiple calls, would generate an overly long and more importantly non-deterministic cache key, leading to very large cache keys which were also not allowing efficient cache usage, both in terms of total memory used as well as number of entries used in the cache itself.

    References: #6869

  • [orm] [bug]

    Revised the means by which the ORMExecuteState.user_defined_options accessor receives UserDefinedOption and related option objects from the context, with particular emphasis on the “selectinload” on the loader strategy where this previously was not working; other strategies did not have this problem. The objects that are associated with the current query being executed, and not that of a query being cached, are now propagated unconditionally. This essentially separates them out from the “loader strategy” options which are explicitly associated with the compiled state of a query and need to be used in relation to the cached query.

    The effect of this fix is that a user-defined option, such as those used by the dogpile.caching example as well as for other recipes such as defining a “shard id” for the horizontal sharing extension, will be correctly propagated to eager and lazy loaders regardless of whether a cached query was ultimately invoked.

    References: #6887

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the unit of work would internally use a 2.0-deprecated SQL expression form, emitting a deprecation warning when SQLALCHEMY_WARN_20 were enabled.

    References: #6812

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in selectinload() where use of the new PropComparator.and_() feature within options that were nested more than one level deep would fail to update bound parameter values that were in the nested criteria, as a side effect of SQL statement caching.

    References: #6881

  • [orm] [bug]

    Adjusted ORM loader internals to no longer use the “lambda caching” system that was added in 1.4, as well as repaired one location that was still using the previous “baked query” system for a query. The lambda caching system remains an effective way to reduce the overhead of building up queries that have relatively fixed usage patterns. In the case of loader strategies, the queries used are responsible for moving through lots of arbitrary options and criteria, which is both generated and sometimes consumed by end-user code, that make the lambda cache concept not any more efficient than not using it, at the cost of more complexity. In particular the problems noted by #6881 and #6887 are made are made considerably less complicated by removing this feature internally.

    References: #6079, #6889

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed an issue where the Bundle construct would not create proper cache keys, leading to inefficient use of the query cache. This had some impact on the “selectinload” strategy and was identified as part of #6889.

    References: #6889

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fix issue in CTE where new HasCTE.add_cte() method added in version 1.4.21 / #6752 failed to function correctly for “compound select” structures such as union(), union_all(), except(), etc. Pull request courtesy Eric Masseran.

    References: #6752

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed an issue in the CacheKey.to_offline_string() method used by the dogpile.caching example where attempting to create a proper cache key from the special “lambda” query generated by the lazy loader would fail to include the parameter values, leading to an incorrect cache key.

    References: #6858

  • [sql] [bug]

    Adjusted the “from linter” warning feature to accommodate for a chain of joins more than one level deep where the ON clauses don’t explicitly match up the targets, such as an expression such as “ON TRUE”. This mode of use is intended to cancel the cartesian product warning simply by the fact that there’s a JOIN from “a to b”, which was not working for the case where the chain of joins had more than one element.

    References: #6886

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in lambda caching system where an element of a query that produces no cache key, like a custom option or clause element, would still populate the expression in the “lambda cache” inappropriately.

schema

  • [schema] [enum]

    Unify behaviour Enum in native and non-native implementations regarding the accepted values for an enum with aliased elements. When Enum.omit_aliases is False all values, alias included, are accepted as valid values. When Enum.omit_aliases is True only non aliased values are accepted as valid values.

    References: #6146

mypy

  • [mypy] [usecase]

    Added support for SQLAlchemy classes to be defined in user code using “generic class” syntax as defined by sqlalchemy2-stubs, e.g. Column[String], without the need for qualifying these constructs within a TYPE_CHECKING block by implementing the Python special method __class_getitem__(), which allows this syntax to pass without error at runtime.

    References: #6759, #6804

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Added the “is_comparison” flag to the PostgreSQL “overlaps”, “contained_by”, “contains” operators, so that they work in relevant ORM contexts as well as in conjunction with the “from linter” feature.

    References: #6886

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [sql]

    Fixed issue where the literal_binds compiler flag, as used externally to render bound parameters inline, would fail to work when used with a certain class of parameters known as “literal_execute”, which covers things like LIMIT and OFFSET values for dialects where the drivers don’t allow a bound parameter, such as SQL Server’s “TOP” clause. The issue locally seemed to affect only the MSSQL dialect.

    References: #6863

misc

  • [bug] [ext]

    Fixed issue where the horizontal sharding extension would not correctly accommodate for a plain textual SQL statement passed to Session.execute().

    References: #6816

1.4.22

Released: July 21, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in new Table.table_valued() method where the resulting TableValuedColumn construct would not respond correctly to alias adaptation as is used throughout the ORM, such as for eager loading, polymorphic loading, etc.

    References: #6775

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where usage of the Result.unique() method with an ORM result that included column expressions with unhashable types, such as JSON or ARRAY using non-tuples would silently fall back to using the id() function, rather than raising an error. This now raises an error when the Result.unique() method is used in a 2.0 style ORM query. Additionally, hashability is assumed to be True for result values of unknown type, such as often happens when using SQL functions of unknown return type; if values are truly not hashable then the hash() itself will raise.

    For legacy ORM queries, since the legacy Query object uniquifies in all cases, the old rules remain in place, which is to use id() for result values of unknown type as this legacy uniquing is mostly for the purpose of uniquing ORM entities and not column values.

    References: #6769

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed an issue where clearing of mappers during things like test suite teardowns could cause a “dictionary changed size” warning during garbage collection, due to iteration of a weak-referencing dictionary. A list() has been applied to prevent concurrent GC from affecting this operation.

    References: #6771

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical caching issue where the ORM’s persistence feature using INSERT..RETURNING would cache an incorrect query when mixing the “bulk save” and standard “flush” forms of INSERT.

    References: #6793

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Added some guards against KeyError in the event system to accommodate the case that the interpreter is shutting down at the same time Engine.dispose() is being called, which would cause stack trace warnings.

    References: #6740

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where use of the case.whens parameter passing a dictionary positionally and not as a keyword argument would emit a 2.0 deprecation warning, referring to the deprecation of passing a list positionally. The dictionary format of “whens”, passed positionally, is still supported and was accidentally marked as deprecated.

    References: #6786

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where type-specific bound parameter handlers would not be called upon in the case of using the Insert.values() method with the Python None value; in particular, this would be noticed when using the JSON datatype as well as related PostgreSQL specific types such as JSONB which would fail to encode the Python None value into JSON null, however the issue was generalized to any bound parameter handler in conjunction with this specific method of Insert.

    References: #6770

1.4.21

Released: July 14, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Modified the approach used for history tracking of scalar object relationships that are not many-to-one, i.e. one-to-one relationships that would otherwise be one-to-many. When replacing a one-to-one value, the “old” value that would be replaced is no longer loaded immediately, and is instead handled during the flush process. This eliminates an historically troublesome lazy load that otherwise often occurs when assigning to a one-to-one attribute, and is particularly troublesome when using “lazy=’raise’” as well as asyncio use cases.

    This change does cause a behavioral change within the AttributeEvents.set() event, which is nonetheless currently documented, which is that the event applied to such a one-to-one attribute will no longer receive the “old” parameter if it is unloaded and the relationship.active_history flag is not set. As is documented in AttributeEvents.set(), if the event handler needs to receive the “old” value when the event fires off, the active_history flag must be established either with the event listener or with the relationship. This is already the behavior with other kinds of attributes such as many-to-one and column value references.

    The change additionally will defer updating a backref on the “old” value in the less common case that the “old” value is locally present in the session, but isn’t loaded on the relationship in question, until the next flush occurs. If this causes an issue, again the normal relationship.active_history flag can be set to True on the relationship.

    References: #6708

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused in 1.4.19 due to #6503 and related involving Query.with_entities() where the new structure used would be inappropriately transferred to an enclosing Query when making use of set operations such as Query.union(), causing the JOIN instructions within to be applied to the outside query as well.

    References: #6698

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression which appeared in version 1.4.3 due to #6060 where rules that limit ORM adaptation of derived selectables interfered with other ORM-adaptation based cases, in this case when applying adaptations for a with_polymorphic() against a mapping which uses a column_property() which in turn makes use of a scalar select that includes a aliased() object of the mapped table.

    References: #6762

  • [orm] [regression]

    Fixed ORM regression where ad-hoc label names generated for hybrid properties and potentially other similar types of ORM-enabled expressions would usually be propagated outwards through subqueries, allowing the name to be retained in the final keys of the result set even when selecting from subqueries. Additional state is now tracked in this case that isn’t lost when a hybrid is selected out of a Core select / subquery.

    References: #6718

sql

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Added new method HasCTE.add_cte() to each of the select(), insert(), update() and delete() constructs. This method will add the given CTE as an “independent” CTE of the statement, meaning it renders in the WITH clause above the statement unconditionally even if it is not otherwise referenced in the primary statement. This is a popular use case on the PostgreSQL database where a CTE is used for a DML statement that runs against database rows independently of the primary statement.

    References: #6752

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in CTE constructs where a recursive CTE that referred to a SELECT that has duplicate column names, which are typically deduplicated using labeling logic in 1.4, would fail to refer to the deduplicated label name correctly within the WITH clause.

    References: #6710

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the tablesample() construct would fail to be executable when constructed given a floating-point sampling value not embedded within a SQL function.

    References: #6735

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in Insert.on_conflict_do_nothing() and Insert.on_conflict_do_update() where the name of a unique constraint passed as the constraint parameter would not be properly truncated for length if it were based on a naming convention that generated a too-long name for the PostgreSQL max identifier length of 63 characters, in the same way which occurs within a CREATE TABLE statement.

    References: #6755

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the PostgreSQL ENUM datatype as embedded in the ARRAY datatype would fail to emit correctly in create/drop when the schema_translate_map feature were also in use. Additionally repairs a related issue where the same schema_translate_map feature would not work for the ENUM datatype in combination with a CAST, that’s also intrinsic to how the ARRAY(ENUM) combination works on the PostgreSQL dialect.

    References: #6739

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in Insert.on_conflict_do_nothing() and Insert.on_conflict_do_update() where the name of a unique constraint passed as the constraint parameter would not be properly quoted if it contained characters which required quoting.

    References: #6696

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the special dotted-schema name handling for the SQL Server dialect would not function correctly if the dotted schema name were used within the schema_translate_map feature.

    References: #6697

1.4.20

Released: June 28, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in ORM regarding an internal reconstitution step for the with_polymorphic() construct, when the user-facing object is garbage collected as the query is processed. The reconstitution was not ensuring the sub-entities for the “polymorphic” case were handled, leading to an AttributeError.

    References: #6680

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Adjusted Query.union() and similar set operations to be correctly compatible with the new capabilities just added in #6661, with SQLAlchemy 1.4.19, such that the SELECT statements rendered as elements of the UNION or other set operation will include directly mapped columns that are mapped as deferred; this both fixes a regression involving unions with multiple levels of nesting that would produce a column mismatch, and also allows the undefer() option to be used at the top level of such a Query without having to apply the option to each of the elements within the UNION.

    References: #6678

  • [orm] [bug]

    Adjusted the check in the mapper for a callable object that is used as a @validates validator function or a @reconstructor reconstruction function, to check for “callable” more liberally such as to accommodate objects based on fundamental attributes like __func__ and __call___, rather than testing for MethodType / FunctionType, allowing things like cython functions to work properly. Pull request courtesy Miłosz Stypiński.

    References: #6538

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed an issue in the C extension for the Row class which could lead to a memory leak in the unlikely case of a Row object which referred to an ORM object that then was mutated to refer back to the Row itself, creating a cycle. The Python C APIs for tracking GC cycles has been added to the native Row implementation to accommodate for this case.

    References: #5348

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed old issue where a select() made against the token “*”, which then yielded exactly one column, would fail to correctly organize the cursor.description column name into the keys of the result object.

    References: #6665

sql

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Add a impl parameter to PickleType constructor, allowing any arbitrary type to be used in place of the default implementation of LargeBinary. Pull request courtesy jason3gb.

    References: #6646

  • [sql] [bug] [orm]

    Fixed the class hierarchy for the Sequence and the more general DefaultGenerator base, as these are “executable” as statements they need to include Executable in their hierarchy, not just StatementRole as was applied arbitrarily to Sequence previously. The fix allows Sequence to work in all .execute() methods including with Session.execute() which was not working in the case that a SessionEvents.do_orm_execute() handler was also established.

    References: #6668

schema

  • [schema] [bug]

    Fixed issue where passing None for the value of Table.prefixes would not store an empty list, but rather the constant None, which may be unexpected by third party dialects. The issue is revealed by a usage in recent versions of Alembic that are passing None for this value. Pull request courtesy Kai Mueller.

    References: #6685

mysql

  • [mysql] [usecase]

    Made a small adjustment in the table reflection feature of the MySQL dialect to accommodate for alternate MySQL-oriented databases such as TiDB which include their own “comment” directives at the end of a constraint directive within “CREATE TABLE” where the format doesn’t have the additional space character after the comment, in this case the TiDB “clustered index” feature. Pull request courtesy Daniël van Eeden.

    References: #6659

misc

1.4.19

Released: June 22, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed further regressions in the same area as that of #6052 where loader options as well as invocations of methods like Query.join() would fail if the left side of the statement for which the option/join depends upon were replaced by using the Query.with_entities() method, or when using 2.0 style queries when using the Select.with_only_columns() method. A new set of state has been added to the objects which tracks the “left” entities that the options / join were made against which is memoized when the lead entities are changed.

    References: #6253, #6503

  • [orm] [bug]

    Refined the behavior of ORM subquery rendering with regards to deferred columns and column properties to be more compatible with that of 1.3 while also providing for 1.4’s newer features. As a subquery in 1.4 does not make use of loader options, including undefer(), a subquery that is against an ORM entity with deferred attributes will now render those deferred attributes that refer directly to mapped table columns, as these are needed in the outer SELECT if that outer SELECT makes use of these columns; however a deferred attribute that refers to a composed SQL expression as we normally do with column_property() will not be part of the subquery, as these can be selected explicitly if needed in the subquery. If the entity is being SELECTed from this subquery, the column expression can still render on “the outside” in terms of the derived subquery columns. This produces essentially the same behavior as when working with 1.3. However in this case the fix has to also make sure that the .selected_columns collection of an ORM-enabled select() also follows these rules, which in particular allows recursive CTEs to render correctly in this scenario, which were previously failing to render correctly due to this issue.

    References: #6661

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in CTE constructs mostly relevant to ORM use cases where a recursive CTE against “anonymous” labels such as those seen in ORM column_property() mappings would render in the WITH RECURSIVE xyz(...) section as their raw internal label and not a cleanly anonymized name.

    References: #6663

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in mypy plugin where class info for a custom declarative base would not be handled correctly on a cached mypy pass, leading to an AssertionError being raised.

    References: #6476

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [usecase]

    Implemented async_scoped_session to address some asyncio-related incompatibilities between scoped_session and AsyncSession, in which some methods (notably the async_scoped_session.remove() method) should be used with the await keyword.

    References: #6583

  • [asyncio] [bug] [postgresql]

    Fixed bug in asyncio implementation where the greenlet adaptation system failed to propagate BaseException subclasses, most notably including asyncio.CancelledError, to the exception handling logic used by the engine to invalidate and clean up the connection, thus preventing connections from being correctly disposed when a task was cancelled.

    References: #6652

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [oracle]

    Fixed issue where the INTERVAL datatype on PostgreSQL and Oracle would produce an AttributeError when used in the context of a comparison operation against a timedelta() object. Pull request courtesy MajorDallas.

    References: #6649

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the pool “pre ping” feature would implicitly start a transaction, which would then interfere with custom transactional flags such as PostgreSQL’s “read only” mode when used with the psycopg2 driver.

    References: #6621

mysql

  • [mysql] [usecase]

    Added new construct match, which provides for the full range of MySQL’s MATCH operator including multiple column support and modifiers. Pull request courtesy Anton Kovalevich.

    See also

    match

    References: #6132

mssql

  • [mssql] [change]

    Made improvements to the server version regexp used by the pymssql dialect to prevent a regexp overflow in case of an invalid version string.

    References: #6253, #6503

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fixed bug where the “schema_translate_map” feature would fail to function correctly in conjunction with an INSERT into a table that has an IDENTITY column, where the value of the IDENTITY column were specified in the values of the INSERT thus triggering SQLAlchemy’s feature of setting IDENTITY INSERT to “on”; it’s in this directive where the schema translate map would fail to be honored.

    References: #6658

1.4.18

Released: June 10, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [performance] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression involving how the ORM would resolve a given mapped column to a result row, where under cases such as joined eager loading, a slightly more expensive “fallback” could take place to set up this resolution due to some logic that was removed since 1.3. The issue could also cause deprecation warnings involving column resolution to be emitted when using a 1.4 style query with joined eager loading.

    References: #6596

  • [orm] [bug]

    Clarified the current purpose of the relationship.bake_queries flag, which in 1.4 is to enable or disable “lambda caching” of statements within the “lazyload” and “selectinload” loader strategies; this is separate from the more foundational SQL query cache that is used for most statements. Additionally, the lazy loader no longer uses its own cache for many-to-one SQL queries, which was an implementation quirk that doesn’t exist for any other loader scenario. Finally, the “lru cache” warning that the lazyloader and selectinloader strategies could emit when handling a wide array of class/relationship combinations has been removed; based on analysis of some end-user cases, this warning doesn’t suggest any significant issue. While setting bake_queries=False for such a relationship will remove this cache from being used, there’s no particular performance gain in this case as using no caching vs. using a cache that needs to refresh often likely still wins out on the caching being used side.

    References: #6072, #6487

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Adjusted the means by which classes such as scoped_session and AsyncSession are generated from the base Session class, such that custom Session subclasses such as that used by Flask-SQLAlchemy don’t need to implement positional arguments when they call into the superclass method, and can continue using the same argument styles as in previous releases.

    References: #6285

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where query production for joinedload against a complex left hand side involving joined-table inheritance could fail to produce a correct query, due to a clause adaption issue.

    References: #6595

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in experimental “select ORM objects from INSERT/UPDATE” use case where an error was raised if the statement were against a single-table-inheritance subclass.

    References: #6591

  • [orm] [bug]

    The warning that’s emitted for relationship() when multiple relationships would overlap with each other as far as foreign key attributes written towards, now includes the specific “overlaps” argument to use for each warning in order to silence the warning without changing the mapping.

    References: #6400

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [usecase]

    Implemented a new registry architecture that allows the Async version of an object, like AsyncSession, AsyncConnection, etc., to be locatable given the proxied “sync” object, i.e. Session, Connection. Previously, to the degree such lookup functions were used, an Async object would be re-created each time, which was less than ideal as the identity and state of the “async” object would not be preserved across calls.

    From there, new helper functions async_object_session(), async_session() as well as a new InstanceState attribute InstanceState.async_session have been added, which are used to retrieve the original AsyncSession associated with an ORM mapped object, a Session associated with an AsyncSession, and an AsyncSession associated with an InstanceState, respectively.

    This patch also implements new methods AsyncSession.in_nested_transaction(), AsyncSession.get_transaction(), AsyncSession.get_nested_transaction().

    References: #6319

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Fixed an issue that presented itself when using the NullPool or the StaticPool with an async engine. This mostly affected the aiosqlite dialect.

    References: #6575

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Added asyncio.exceptions.TimeoutError, asyncio.exceptions.CancelledError as so-called “exit exceptions”, a class of exceptions that include things like GreenletExit and KeyboardInterrupt, which are considered to be events that warrant considering a DBAPI connection to be in an unusable state where it should be recycled.

    References: #6592

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where using the PostgreSQL “INSERT..ON CONFLICT” structure would fail to work with the psycopg2 driver if it were used in an “executemany” context along with bound parameters in the “SET” clause, due to the implicit use of the psycopg2 fast execution helpers which are not appropriate for this style of INSERT statement; as these helpers are the default in 1.4 this is effectively a regression. Additional checks to exclude this kind of statement from that particular extension have been added.

    References: #6581

sqlite

  • [sqlite] [bug]

    Add note regarding encryption-related pragmas for pysqlcipher passed in the url.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.25

    References: #6589

  • [sqlite] [bug] [regression]

    The fix for pysqlcipher released in version 1.4.3 #5848 was unfortunately non-working, in that the new on_connect_url hook was erroneously not receiving a URL object under normal usage of create_engine() and instead received a string that was unhandled; the test suite failed to fully set up the actual conditions under which this hook is called. This has been fixed.

    References: #6586

1.4.17

Released: May 29, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused by just-released performance fix mentioned in #6550 where a query.join() to a relationship could produce an AttributeError if the query were made against non-ORM structures only, a fairly unusual calling pattern.

    References: #6558

1.4.16

Released: May 28, 2021

general

  • [general] [bug]

    Resolved various deprecation warnings which were appearing as of Python version 3.10.0b1.

    References: #6540, #6543

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue when using relationship.cascade_backrefs parameter set to False, which per cascade_backrefs behavior deprecated for removal in 2.0 is set to become the standard behavior in SQLAlchemy 2.0, where adding the item to a collection that uniquifies, such as set or dict would fail to fire a cascade event if the object were already associated in that collection via the backref. This fix represents a fundamental change in the collection mechanics by introducing a new event state which can fire off for a collection mutation even if there is no net change on the collection; the action is now suited using a new event hook AttributeEvents.append_wo_mutation().

    References: #6471

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression involving clause adaption of labeled ORM compound elements, such as single-table inheritance discriminator expressions with conditionals or CASE expressions, which could cause aliased expressions such as those used in ORM join / joinedload operations to not be adapted correctly, such as referring to the wrong table in the ON clause in a join.

    This change also improves a performance bump that was located within the process of invoking Select.join() given an ORM attribute as a target.

    References: #6550

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the full combination of joined inheritance, global with_polymorphic, self-referential relationship and joined loading would fail to be able to produce a query with the scope of lazy loads and object refresh operations that also attempted to render the joined loader.

    References: #6495

  • [orm] [bug]

    Enhanced the bind resolution rules for Session.execute() so that when a non-ORM statement such as an insert() construct nonetheless is built against ORM objects, to the greatest degree possible the ORM entity will be used to resolve the bind, such as for a Session that has a bind map set up on a common superclass without specific mappers or tables named in the map.

    References: #6484

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed issue where an @ sign in the database portion of a URL would not be interpreted correctly if the URL also had a username:password section.

    References: #6482

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed a long-standing issue with URL where query parameters following the question mark would not be parsed correctly if the URL did not contain a database portion with a backslash.

    References: #6329

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in dynamic loader strategy and relationship() overall where the relationship.order_by parameter were stored as a mutable list, which could then be mutated when combined with additional “order_by” methods used against the dynamic query object, causing the ORDER BY criteria to continue to grow repetitively.

    References: #6549

mssql

  • [mssql] [usecase]

    Implemented support for a CTE construct to be used directly as the target of a delete() construct, i.e. “WITH … AS cte DELETE FROM cte”. This appears to be a useful feature of SQL Server.

    References: #6464

misc

  • [bug] [ext]

    Fixed a deprecation warning that was emitted when using automap_base() without passing an existing Base.

    References: #6529

  • [bug] [pep484]

    Remove pep484 types from the code. Current effort is around the stub package, and having typing in two places makes thing worse, since the types in the SQLAlchemy source were usually outdated compared to the version in the stubs.

    References: #6461

  • [bug] [ext] [regression]

    Fixed regression in the sqlalchemy.ext.instrumentation extension that prevented instrumentation disposal from working completely. This fix includes both a 1.4 regression fix as well as a fix for a related issue that existed in 1.3 also. As part of this change, the sqlalchemy.ext.instrumentation.InstrumentationManager class now has a new method unregister(), which replaces the previous method dispose(), which was not called as of version 1.4.

    References: #6390

1.4.15

Released: May 11, 2021

general

  • [general] [feature]

    A new approach has been applied to the warnings system in SQLAlchemy to accurately predict the appropriate stack level for each warning dynamically. This allows evaluating the source of SQLAlchemy-generated warnings and deprecation warnings to be more straightforward as the warning will indicate the source line within end-user code, rather than from an arbitrary level within SQLAlchemy’s own source code.

    References: #6241

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed additional regression caused by “eager loaders run on unexpire” feature #1763 where the feature would run for a contains_eager() eagerload option in the case that the contains_eager() were chained to an additional eager loader option, which would then produce an incorrect query as the original query-bound join criteria were no longer present.

    References: #6449

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in subquery loader strategy which prevented caching from working correctly. This would have been seen in the logs as a “generated” message instead of “cached” for all subqueryload SQL emitted, which by saturating the cache with new keys would degrade overall performance; it also would produce “LRU size alert” warnings.

    References: #6459

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Adjusted the logic added as part of #6397 in 1.4.12 so that internal mutation of the BindParameter object occurs within the clause construction phase as it did before, rather than in the compilation phase. In the latter case, the mutation still produced side effects against the incoming construct and additionally could potentially interfere with other internal mutation routines.

    References: #6460

mysql

  • [mysql] [bug] [documentation]

    Added support for the ssl_check_hostname= parameter in mysql connection URIs and updated the mysql dialect documentation regarding secure connections. Original pull request courtesy of Jerry Zhao.

    References: #5397

1.4.14

Released: May 6, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression involving lazy='dynamic' loader in conjunction with a detached object. The previous behavior was that the dynamic loader upon calling methods like .all() returns empty lists for detached objects without error, this has been restored; however a warning is now emitted as this is not the correct result. Other dynamic loader scenarios correctly raise DetachedInstanceError.

    References: #6426

engine

  • [engine] [usecase] [orm]

    Applied consistent behavior to the use case of calling .commit() or .rollback() inside of an existing .begin() context manager, with the addition of potentially emitting SQL within the block subsequent to the commit or rollback. This change continues upon the change first added in #6155 where the use case of calling “rollback” inside of a .begin() contextmanager block was proposed:

    • calling .commit() or .rollback() will now be allowed without error or warning within all scopes, including that of legacy and future Engine, ORM Session, asyncio AsyncEngine. Previously, the Session disallowed this.

    • The remaining scope of the context manager is then closed; when the block ends, a check is emitted to see if the transaction was already ended, and if so the block returns without action.

    • It will now raise an error if subsequent SQL of any kind is emitted within the block, after .commit() or .rollback() is called. The block should be closed as the state of the executable object would otherwise be undefined in this state.

    References: #6288

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Established a deprecation path for calling upon the CursorResult.keys() method for a statement that returns no rows to provide support for legacy patterns used by the “records” package as well as any other non-migrated applications. Previously, this would raise ResourceClosedException unconditionally in the same way as it does when attempting to fetch rows. While this is the correct behavior going forward, the _cursor.LegacyCursorResult object will now in this case return an empty list for .keys() as it did in 1.3, while also emitting a 2.0 deprecation warning. The _cursor.CursorResult, used when using a 2.0-style “future” engine, will continue to raise as it does now.

    References: #6427

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused by the “empty in” change just made in #6397 1.4.12 where the expression needs to be parenthesized for the “not in” use case, otherwise the condition will interfere with the other filtering criteria.

    References: #6428

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    The TypeDecorator class will now emit a warning when used in SQL compilation with caching unless the .cache_ok flag is set to True or False. A new class-level attribute TypeDecorator.cache_ok may be set which will be used as an indication that all the parameters passed to the object are safe to be used as a cache key if set to True, False means they are not.

    References: #6436

1.4.13

Released: May 3, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in selectinload loader strategy that would cause it to cache its internal state incorrectly when handling relationships that join across more than one column, such as when using a composite foreign key. The invalid caching would then cause other unrelated loader operations to fail.

    References: #6410

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where Query.filter_by() would not work if the lead entity were a SQL function or other expression derived from the primary entity in question, rather than a simple entity or column of that entity. Additionally, improved the behavior of Select.filter_by() overall to work with column expressions even in a non-ORM context.

    References: #6414

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where using selectinload() and subqueryload() to load a two-level-deep path would lead to an attribute error.

    References: #6419

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where using the noload() loader strategy in conjunction with a “dynamic” relationship would lead to an attribute error as the noload strategy would attempt to apply itself to the dynamic loader.

    References: #6420

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Restored a legacy transactional behavior that was inadvertently removed from the Connection as it was never tested as a known use case in previous versions, where calling upon the Connection.begin_nested() method, when no transaction is present, does not create a SAVEPOINT at all and instead starts an outer transaction, returning a RootTransaction object instead of a NestedTransaction object. This RootTransaction then will emit a real COMMIT on the database connection when committed. Previously, the 2.0 style behavior was present in all cases that would autobegin a transaction but not commit it, which is a behavioral change.

    When using a 2.0 style connection object, the behavior is unchanged from previous 1.4 versions; calling Connection.begin_nested() will “autobegin” the outer transaction if not already present, and then as instructed emit a SAVEPOINT, returning the NestedTransaction object. The outer transaction is committed by calling upon Connection.commit(), as is “commit-as-you-go” style usage.

    In non-“future” mode, while the old behavior is restored, it also emits a 2.0 deprecation warning as this is a legacy behavior.

    References: #6408

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed a regression introduced by #6337 that would create an asyncio.Lock which could be attached to the wrong loop when instantiating the async engine before any asyncio loop was started, leading to an asyncio error message when attempting to use the engine under certain circumstances.

    References: #6409

postgresql

1.4.12

Released: April 29, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in Session.bulk_save_objects() when used with persistent objects which would fail to track the primary key of mappings where the column name of the primary key were different than the attribute name.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.25

    References: #6392

  • [orm] [bug] [caching] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression where bound parameter tracking as used in the SQL caching system could fail to track all parameters for the case where the same SQL expression containing a parameter were used in an ORM-related query using a feature such as class inheritance, which was then embedded in an enclosing expression which would make use of that same expression multiple times, such as a UNION. The ORM would individually copy the individual SELECT statements as part of compilation with class inheritance, which then embedded in the enclosing statement would fail to accommodate for all parameters. The logic that tracks this condition has been adjusted to work for multiple copies of a parameter.

    References: #6391

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed two distinct issues mostly affecting hybrid_property, which would come into play under common mis-configuration scenarios that were silently ignored in 1.3, and now failed in 1.4, where the “expression” implementation would return a non ClauseElement such as a boolean value. For both issues, 1.3’s behavior was to silently ignore the mis-configuration and ultimately attempt to interpret the value as a SQL expression, which would lead to an incorrect query.

    • Fixed issue regarding interaction of the attribute system with hybrid_property, where if the __clause_element__() method of the attribute returned a non-ClauseElement object, an internal AttributeError would lead the attribute to return the expression function on the hybrid_property itself, as the attribute error was against the name .expression which would invoke the __getattr__() method as a fallback. This now raises explicitly. In 1.3 the non-ClauseElement was returned directly.

    • Fixed issue in SQL argument coercions system where passing the wrong kind of object to methods that expect column expressions would fail if the object were altogether not a SQLAlchemy object, such as a Python function, in cases where the object were not just coerced into a bound value. Again 1.3 did not have a comprehensive argument coercion system so this case would also pass silently.

    References: #6350

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where using a Select as a subquery in an ORM context would modify the Select in place to disable eagerloads on that object, which would then cause that same Select to not eagerload if it were then re-used in a top-level execution context.

    References: #6378

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where the new autobegin behavior failed to “autobegin” in the case where an existing persistent object has an attribute change, which would then impact the behavior of Session.rollback() in that no snapshot was created to be rolled back. The “attribute modify” mechanics have been updated to ensure “autobegin”, which does not perform any database work, does occur when persistent attributes change in the same manner as when Session.add() is called. This is a regression as in 1.3, the rollback() method always had a transaction to roll back and would expire every time.

    References: #6359, #6360

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in ORM where using hybrid property to indicate an expression from a different entity would confuse the column-labeling logic in the ORM and attempt to derive the name of the hybrid from that other class, leading to an attribute error. The owning class of the hybrid attribute is now tracked along with the name.

    References: #6386

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in hybrid_property where a hybrid against a SQL function would generate an AttributeError when attempting to generate an entry for the .c collection of a subquery in some cases; among other things this would impact its use in cases like that of Query.count().

    References: #6401

  • [orm] [bug] [dataclasses]

    Adjusted the declarative scan for dataclasses so that the inheritance behavior of declared_attr() established on a mixin, when using the new form of having it inside of a dataclasses.field() construct and not actually a descriptor attribute on the class, correctly accommodates the case when the target class to be mapped is a subclass of an existing mapped class which has already mapped that declared_attr(), and therefore should not be re-applied to this class.

    References: #6346

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed an issue with the (deprecated in 1.4) ForeignKeyConstraint.copy() method that caused an error when invoked with the schema argument.

    References: #6353

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed issue where usage of an explicit Sequence would produce inconsistent “inline” behavior for an Insert construct that includes multiple values phrases; the first seq would be inline but subsequent ones would be “pre-execute”, leading to inconsistent sequence ordering. The sequence expressions are now fully inline.

    References: #6361

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Revised the “EMPTY IN” expression to no longer rely upon using a subquery, as this was causing some compatibility and performance problems. The new approach for selected databases takes advantage of using a NULL-returning IN expression combined with the usual “1 != 1” or “1 = 1” expression appended by AND or OR. The expression is now the default for all backends other than SQLite, which still had some compatibility issues regarding tuple “IN” for older SQLite versions.

    Third party dialects can still override how the “empty set” expression renders by implementing a new compiler method def visit_empty_set_op_expr(self, type_, expand_op), which takes precedence over the existing def visit_empty_set_expr(self, element_types) which remains in place.

    References: #6258, #6397

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where usage of the text() construct inside the columns clause of a Select construct, which is better handled by using a literal_column() construct, would nonetheless prevent constructs like union() from working correctly. Other use cases, such as constructing subuqeries, continue to work the same as in prior versions where the text() construct is silently omitted from the collection of exported columns. Also repairs similar use within the ORM.

    References: #6343

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression involving legacy methods such as Select.append_column() where internal assertions would fail.

    References: #6261

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused by #5395 where tuning back the check for sequences in select() now caused failures when doing 2.0-style querying with a mapped class that also happens to have an __iter__() method. Tuned the check some more to accommodate this as well as some other interesting __iter__() scenarios.

    References: #6300

schema

  • [schema] [bug] [mariadb] [mysql] [oracle] [postgresql]

    Ensure that the MySQL and MariaDB dialect ignore the Identity construct while rendering the AUTO_INCREMENT keyword in a create table.

    The Oracle and PostgreSQL compiler was updated to not render Identity if the database version does not support it (Oracle < 12 and PostgreSQL < 10). Previously it was rendered regardless of the database version.

    References: #6338

postgresql

sqlite

  • [sqlite] [usecase]

    Default to using SingletonThreadPool for in-memory SQLite databases created using URI filenames. Previously the default pool used was the NullPool that precented sharing the same database between multiple engines.

    References: #6379

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [schema]

    Add TypeEngine.as_generic() support for sqlalchemy.dialects.mysql.BIT columns, mapping them to Boolean.

    References: #6345

  • [mssql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused by #6306 which added support for DateTime(timezone=True), where the previous behavior of the pyodbc driver of implicitly dropping the tzinfo from a timezone-aware date when INSERTing into a timezone-naive DATETIME column were lost, leading to a SQL Server error when inserting timezone-aware datetime objects into timezone-native database columns.

    References: #6366

1.4.11

Released: April 21, 2021

orm declarative

  • [orm] [declarative] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where recent changes to support Python dataclasses had the inadvertent effect that an ORM mapped class could not successfully override the __new__() method.

    References: #6331

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression caused by the change in #5497 where the connection pool “init” phase no longer occurred within mutexed isolation, allowing other threads to proceed with the dialect uninitialized, which could then impact the compilation of SQL statements.

    References: #6337

1.4.10

Released: April 20, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Altered some of the behavior repaired in #6232 where the immediateload loader strategy no longer goes into recursive loops; the modification is that an eager load (joinedload, selectinload, or subqueryload) from A->bs->B which then states immediateload for a simple manytoone B->a->A that’s in the identity map will populate the B->A, so that this attribute is back-populated when the collection of A/A.bs are loaded. This allows the objects to be functional when detached.

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug in new with_loader_criteria() feature where using a mixin class with declared_attr() on an attribute that were accessed inside the custom lambda would emit a warning regarding using an unmapped declared attr, when the lambda callable were first initialized. This warning is now prevented using special instrumentation for this lambda initialization step.

    References: #6320

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed additional regression caused by the “eagerloaders on refresh” feature added in #1763 where the refresh operation historically would set populate_existing, which given the new feature now overwrites pending changes on eagerly loaded objects when autoflush is false. The populate_existing flag has been turned off for this case and a more specific method used to ensure the correct attributes refreshed.

    References: #6326

  • [orm] [bug] [result]

    Fixed an issue when using 2.0 style execution that prevented using Result.scalar_one() or Result.scalar_one_or_none() after calling Result.unique(), for the case where the ORM is returning a single-element row in any case.

    References: #6299

sql

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in SQL compiler where the bound parameters set up for a Values construct wouldn’t be positionally tracked correctly if inside of a CTE, affecting database drivers that support VALUES + ctes and use positional parameters such as SQL Server in particular as well as asyncpg. The fix also repairs support for compiler flags such as literal_binds.

    References: #6327

  • [sql] [bug]

    Repaired and solidified issues regarding custom functions and other arbitrary expression constructs which within SQLAlchemy’s column labeling mechanics would seek to use str(obj) to get a string representation to use as an anonymous column name in the .c collection of a subquery. This is a very legacy behavior that performs poorly and leads to lots of issues, so has been revised to no longer perform any compilation by establishing specific methods on FunctionElement to handle this case, as SQL functions are the only use case that it came into play. An effect of this behavior is that an unlabeled column expression with no derivable name will be given an arbitrary label starting with the prefix "_no_label" in the .c collection of a subquery; these were previously being represented either as the generic stringification of that expression, or as an internal symbol.

    References: #6256

schema

  • [schema] [bug]

    Fixed issue where next_value() was not deriving its type from the corresponding Sequence, instead hardcoded to Integer. The specific numeric type is now used.

    References: #6287

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue where mypy plugin would not correctly interpret an explicit Mapped annotation in conjunction with a relationship() that refers to a class by string name; the correct annotation would be downgraded to a less specific one leading to typing errors.

    References: #6255

mssql

  • [mssql] [usecase]

    The DateTime.timezone parameter when set to True will now make use of the DATETIMEOFFSET column type with SQL Server when used to emit DDL, rather than DATETIME where the flag was silently ignored.

    References: #6306

misc

  • [bug] [declarative] [regression]

    Fixed instrument_declarative() that called a non existing registry method.

    References: #6291

1.4.9

Released: April 17, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Established support for synoynm() in conjunction with hybrid property, assocaitionproxy is set up completely, including that synonyms can be established linking to these constructs which work fully. This is a behavior that was semi-explicitly disallowed previously, however since it did not fail in every scenario, explicit support for assoc proxy and hybrids has been added.

    References: #6267

  • [orm] [performance] [bug] [regression] [sql]

    Fixed a critical performance issue where the traversal of a select() construct would traverse a repetitive product of the represented FROM clauses as they were each referred towards by columns in the columns clause; for a series of nested subqueries with lots of columns this could cause a large delay and significant memory growth. This traversal is used by a wide variety of SQL and ORM functions, including by the ORM Session when it’s configured to have “table-per-bind”, which while this is not a common use case, it seems to be what Flask-SQLAlchemy is hardcoded as using, so the issue impacts Flask-SQLAlchemy users. The traversal has been repaired to uniqify on FROM clauses which was effectively what would happen implicitly with the pre-1.4 architecture.

    References: #6304

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where an attribute that is mapped to a synonym() could not be used in column loader options such as load_only().

    References: #6272

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where an empty in statement on a tuple would result in an error when compiled with the option literal_binds=True.

    References: #6290

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [regression] [sql]

    Fixed an argument error in the default and PostgreSQL compilers that would interfere with an UPDATE..FROM or DELETE..FROM..USING statement that was then SELECTed from as a CTE.

    References: #6303

1.4.8

Released: April 15, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed a cache leak involving the with_expression() loader option, where the given SQL expression would not be correctly considered as part of the cache key.

    Additionally, fixed regression involving the corresponding query_expression() feature. While the bug technically exists in 1.3 as well, it was not exposed until 1.4. The “default expr” value of null() would be rendered when not needed, and additionally was also not adapted correctly when the ORM rewrites statements such as when using joined eager loading. The fix ensures “singleton” expressions like NULL and true aren’t “adapted” to refer to columns in ORM statements, and additionally ensures that a query_expression() with no default expression doesn’t render in the statement if a with_expression() isn’t used.

    References: #6259

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in the new feature of Session.refresh() introduced by #1763 where eagerly loaded relationships are also refreshed, where the lazy="raise" and lazy="raise_on_sql" loader strategies would interfere with the immediateload() loader strategy, thus breaking the feature for relationships that were loaded with selectinload(), subqueryload() as well.

    References: #6252

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    The Dialect.has_table() method now raises an informative exception if a non-Connection is passed to it, as this incorrect behavior seems to be common. This method is not intended for external use outside of a dialect. Please use the Inspector.has_table() method or for cross-compatibility with older SQLAlchemy versions, the Engine.has_table() method.

sql

  • [sql] [feature]

    The tuple returned by CursorResult.inserted_primary_key is now a Row object with a named tuple interface on top of the existing tuple interface.

    References: #3314

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the BindParameter object would not properly render for an IN expression (i.e. using the “post compile” feature in 1.4) if the object were copied from either an internal cloning operation, or from a pickle operation, and the parameter name contained spaces or other special characters.

    References: #6249

  • [sql] [bug] [regression] [sqlite]

    Fixed regression where the introduction of the INSERT syntax “INSERT… VALUES (DEFAULT)” was not supported on some backends that do however support “INSERT..DEFAULT VALUES”, including SQLite. The two syntaxes are now each individually supported or non-supported for each dialect, for example MySQL supports “VALUES (DEFAULT)” but not “DEFAULT VALUES”. Support for Oracle has also been enabled.

    References: #6254

mypy

  • [mypy] [change]

    Updated Mypy plugin to only use the public plugin interface of the semantic analyzer.

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Revised the fix for OrderingList from version 1.4.7 which was testing against the incorrect API.

    References: #6205

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Fix typo that prevented setting the bind attribute of an AsyncSession to the correct value.

    References: #6220

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed an additional regression in the same area as that of #6173, #6184, where using a value of 0 for OFFSET in conjunction with LIMIT with SQL Server would create a statement using “TOP”, as was the behavior in 1.3, however due to caching would then fail to respond accordingly to other values of OFFSET. If the “0” wasn’t first, then it would be fine. For the fix, the “TOP” syntax is now only emitted if the OFFSET value is omitted entirely, that is, Select.offset() is not used. Note that this change now requires that if the “with_ties” or “percent” modifiers are used, the statement can’t specify an OFFSET of zero, it now needs to be omitted entirely.

    References: #6265

1.4.7

Released: April 9, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the subqueryload() loader strategy would fail to correctly accommodate sub-options, such as a defer() option on a column, if the “path” of the subqueryload were more than one level deep.

    References: #6221

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the merge_frozen_result() function relied upon by the dogpile.caching example was not included in tests and began failing due to incorrect internal arguments.

    References: #6211

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression where the Session could fail to “autobegin” a new transaction when a flush occurred without an existing transaction in place, implicitly placing the Session into legacy autocommit mode which commit the transaction. The Session now has a check that will prevent this condition from occurring, in addition to repairing the flush issue.

    Additionally, scaled back part of the change made as part of #5226 which can run autoflush during an unexpire operation, to not actually do this in the case of a Session using legacy Session.autocommit mode, as this incurs a commit within a refresh operation.

    References: #6233

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the ORM compilation scheme would assume the function name of a hybrid property would be the same as the attribute name in such a way that an AttributeError would be raised, when it would attempt to determine the correct name for each element in a result tuple. A similar issue exists in 1.3 but only impacts the names of tuple rows. The fix here adds a check that the hybrid’s function name is actually present in the __dict__ of the class or its superclasses before assigning this name; otherwise, the hybrid is considered to be “unnamed” and ORM result tuples will use the naming scheme of the underlying expression.

    References: #6215

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression caused by the new feature added as part of #1763, eager loaders are invoked on unexpire operations. The new feature makes use of the “immediateload” eager loader strategy as a substitute for a collection loading strategy, which unlike the other “post-load” strategies was not accommodating for recursive invocations between mutually-dependent relationships, leading to recursion overflow errors.

    References: #6232

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed up the behavior of the Row object when dictionary access is used upon it, meaning converting to a dict via dict(row) or accessing members using strings or other objects i.e. row["some_key"] works as it would with a dictionary, rather than raising TypeError as would be the case with a tuple, whether or not the C extensions are in place. This was originally supposed to emit a 2.0 deprecation warning for the “non-future” case using LegacyRow, and was to raise TypeError for the “future” Row class. However, the C version of Row was failing to raise this TypeError, and to complicate matters, the Session.execute() method now returns Row in all cases to maintain consistency with the ORM result case, so users who didn’t have C extensions installed would see different behavior in this one case for existing pre-1.4 style code.

    Therefore, in order to soften the overall upgrade scheme as most users have not been exposed to the more strict behavior of Row up through 1.4.6, LegacyRow and Row both provide for string-key access as well as support for dict(row), in all cases emitting the 2.0 deprecation warning when SQLALCHEMY_WARN_20 is enabled. The Row object still uses tuple-like behavior for __contains__, which is probably the only noticeable behavioral change compared to LegacyRow, other than the removal of dictionary-style methods values() and items().

    References: #6218

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Enhanced the “expanding” feature used for ColumnOperators.in_() operations to infer the type of expression from the right hand list of elements, if the left hand side does not have any explicit type set up. This allows the expression to support stringification among other things. In 1.3, “expanding” was not automatically used for ColumnOperators.in_() expressions, so in that sense this change fixes a behavioral regression.

    References: #6222

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed the “stringify” compiler to support a basic stringification of a “multirow” INSERT statement, i.e. one with multiple tuples following the VALUES keyword.

schema

  • [schema] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where usage of a token in the Connection.execution_options.schema_translate_map dictionary which contained special characters such as braces would fail to be substituted properly. Use of square bracket characters [] is now explicitly disallowed as these are used as a delimiter character in the current implementation.

    References: #6216

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in Mypy plugin where the plugin wasn’t inferring the correct type for columns of subclasses that don’t directly descend from TypeEngine, in particular that of TypeDecorator and UserDefinedType.

misc

  • [change] [tests]

    Added a new flag to DefaultDialect called supports_schemas; third party dialects may set this flag to False to disable SQLAlchemy’s schema-level tests when running the test suite for a third party dialect.

1.4.6

Released: April 6, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where a deprecated form of Query.join() were used, passing a series of entities to join from without any ON clause in a single Query.join() call, would fail to function correctly.

    References: #6203

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression where the Query.yield_per() method in the ORM would set up the internal Result to yield chunks at a time, however made use of the new Result.unique() method which uniques across the entire result. This would lead to lost rows since the ORM is using id(obj) as the uniquing function, which leads to repeated identifiers for new objects as already-seen objects are garbage collected. 1.3’s behavior here was to “unique” across each chunk, which does not actually produce “uniqued” results when results are yielded in chunks. As the Query.yield_per() method is already explicitly disallowed when joined eager loading is in place, which is the primary rationale for the “uniquing” feature, the “uniquing” feature is now turned off entirely when Query.yield_per() is used.

    This regression only applies to the legacy Query object; when using 2.0 style execution, “uniquing” is not automatically applied. To prevent the issue from arising from explicit use of Result.unique(), an error is now raised if rows are fetched from a “uniqued” ORM-level Result if any yield per API is also in use, as the purpose of yield_per is to allow for arbitrarily large numbers of rows, which cannot be uniqued in memory without growing the number of entries to fit the complete result size.

    References: #6206

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [mssql] [oracle] [regression]

    Fixed further regressions in the same area as that of #6173 released in 1.4.5, where a “postcompile” parameter, again most typically those used for LIMIT/OFFSET rendering in Oracle and SQL Server, would fail to be processed correctly if the same parameter rendered in multiple places in the statement.

    References: #6202

  • [sql] [bug]

    Executing a Subquery using Connection.execute() is deprecated and will emit a deprecation warning; this use case was an oversight that should have been removed from 1.4. The operation will now execute the underlying Select object directly for backwards compatibility. Similarly, the CTE class is also not appropriate for execution. In 1.3, attempting to execute a CTE would result in an invalid “blank” SQL statement being executed; since this use case was not working it now raises ObjectNotExecutableError. Previously, 1.4 was attempting to execute the CTE as a statement however it was working only erratically.

    References: #6204

schema

  • [schema] [bug]

    The Table object now raises an informative error message if it is instantiated without passing at least the Table.name and Table.metadata arguments positionally. Previously, if these were passed as keyword arguments, the object would silently fail to initialize correctly.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.25

    References: #6135

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Applied a series of refactorings and fixes to accommodate for Mypy “incremental” mode across multiple files, which previously was not taken into account. In this mode the Mypy plugin has to accommodate Python datatypes expressed in other files coming in with less information than they have on a direct run.

    Additionally, a new decorator declarative_mixin() is added, which is necessary for the Mypy plugin to be able to definifitely identify a Declarative mixin class that is otherwise not used inside a particular Python file.

    References: #6147

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the Mypy plugin would fail to interpret the “collection_class” of a relationship if it were a callable and not a class. Also improved type matching and error reporting for collection-oriented relationships.

    References: #6205

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [usecase] [postgresql]

    Added accessors .sqlstate and synonym .pgcode to the .orig attribute of the SQLAlchemy exception class raised by the asyncpg DBAPI adapter, that is, the intermediary exception object that wraps on top of that raised by the asyncpg library itself, but below the level of the SQLAlchemy dialect.

    References: #6199

1.4.5

Released: April 2, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the joinedload() loader strategy would not successfully joinedload to a mapper that is mapper against a CTE construct.

    References: #6172

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Scaled back the warning message added in #5171 to not warn for overlapping columns in an inheritance scenario where a particular relationship is local to a subclass and therefore does not represent an overlap.

    References: #6171

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql]

    Fixed bug in new FunctionElement.render_derived() feature where column names rendered out explicitly in the alias SQL would not have proper quoting applied for case sensitive names and other non-alphanumeric names.

    References: #6183

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where use of the Operators.in_() method with a Select object against a non-table-bound column would produce an AttributeError, or more generally using a ScalarSelect that has no datatype in a binary expression would produce invalid state.

    References: #6181

  • [sql] [bug]

    Added a new flag to the Dialect class called Dialect.supports_statement_cache. This flag now needs to be present directly on a dialect class in order for SQLAlchemy’s query cache to take effect for that dialect. The rationale is based on discovered issues such as #6173 revealing that dialects which hardcode literal values from the compiled statement, often the numerical parameters used for LIMIT / OFFSET, will not be compatible with caching until these dialects are revised to use the parameters present in the statement only. For third party dialects where this flag is not applied, the SQL logging will show the message “dialect does not support caching”, indicating the dialect should seek to apply this flag once they have verified that no per-statement literal values are being rendered within the compilation phase.

    References: #6184

schema

  • [schema] [bug]

    Introduce a new parameter Enum.omit_aliases in Enum type allow filtering aliases when using a pep435 Enum. Previous versions of SQLAlchemy kept aliases in all cases, creating database enum type with additional states, meaning that they were treated as different values in the db. For backward compatibility this flag defaults to False in the 1.4 series, but will be switched to True in a future version. A deprecation warning is raise if this flag is not specified and the passed enum contains aliases.

    References: #6146

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in mypy plugin where newly added support for as_declarative() needed to more fully add the DeclarativeMeta class to the mypy interpreter’s state so that it does not result in a name not found error; additionally improves how global names are setup for the plugin including the Mapped name.

    References: #sqlalchemy/sqlalchemy2-stubs/#14

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the asyncio extension could not be loaded if running Python 3.6 with the backport library of contextvars installed.

    References: #6166

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression caused by #6023 where the PostgreSQL cast operator applied to elements within an ARRAY when using psycopg2 would fail to use the correct type in the case that the datatype were also embedded within an instance of the Variant adapter.

    Additionally, repairs support for the correct CREATE TYPE to be emitted when using a Variant(ARRAY(some_schema_type)).

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.25

    References: #6182

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed typo in the fix for #6099 released in 1.4.4 that completely prevented this change from working correctly, i.e. the error message did not match what was actually emitted by pg8000.

    References: #6099

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the PostgreSQL PGInspector, when generated against an Engine, would fail for .get_enums(), .get_view_names(), .get_foreign_table_names() and .get_table_oid() when used against a “future” style engine and not the connection directly.

    References: #6170

mysql

  • [mysql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in the MySQL dialect where the reflection query used to detect if a table exists would fail on very old MySQL 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

    References: #6163

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fixed a regression in MSSQL 2012+ that prevented the order by clause to be rendered when offset=0 is used in a subquery.

    References: #6163

oracle

  • [oracle] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed critical regression where the Oracle compiler would not maintain the correct parameter values in the LIMIT/OFFSET for a select due to a caching issue.

    References: #6173

1.4.4

Released: March 30, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed critical issue in the new PropComparator.and_() feature where loader strategies that emit secondary SELECT statements such as selectinload() and lazyload() would fail to accommodate for bound parameters in the user-defined criteria in terms of the current statement being executed, as opposed to the cached statement, causing stale bound values to be used.

    This also adds a warning for the case where an object that uses lazyload() in conjunction with PropComparator.and_() is attempted to be serialized; the loader criteria cannot reliably be serialized and deserialized and eager loading should be used for this case.

    References: #6139

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed missing method Session.get() from the ScopedSession interface.

    References: #6144

engine

  • [engine] [usecase]

    Modified the context manager used by Transaction so that an “already detached” warning is not emitted by the ending of the context manager itself, if the transaction were already manually rolled back inside the block. This applies to regular transactions, savepoint transactions, and legacy “marker” transactions. A warning is still emitted if the .rollback() method is called explicitly more than once.

    References: #6155

  • [engine] [bug]

    Repair wrong arguments to exception handling method in CursorResult.

    References: #6138

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [reflection]

    Fixed issue in PostgreSQL reflection where a column expressing “NOT NULL” will supersede the nullability of a corresponding domain.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #6161

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Modified the is_disconnect() handler for the pg8000 dialect, which now accommodates for a new InterfaceError emitted by pg8000 1.19.0. Pull request courtesy Hamdi Burak Usul.

    References: #6099

misc

  • [misc] [bug]

    Adjusted the usage of the importlib_metadata library for loading setuptools entrypoints in order to accommodate for some deprecation changes.

1.4.3

Released: March 25, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed a bug where python 2.7.5 (default on CentOS 7) wasn’t able to import sqlalchemy, because on this version of Python exec "statement" and exec("statement") do not behave the same way. The compatibility exec_() function was used instead.

    References: #6069

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug where ORM queries using a correlated subquery in conjunction with column_property() would fail to correlate correctly to an enclosing subquery or to a CTE when Select.correlate_except() were used in the property to control correlation, in cases where the subquery contained the same selectables as ones within the correlated subquery that were intended to not be correlated.

    References: #6060

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug where combinations of the new “relationship with criteria” feature could fail in conjunction with features that make use of the new “lambda SQL” feature, including loader strategies such as selectinload and lazyload, for more complicated scenarios such as polymorphic loading.

    References: #6131

  • [orm] [bug]

    Repaired support so that the ClauseElement.params() method can work correctly with a Select object that includes joins across ORM relationship structures, which is a new feature in 1.4.

    References: #6124

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where a “removed in 2.0” warning were generated internally by the relationship loader mechanics.

    References: #6115

orm declarative

  • [orm] [declarative] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the .metadata attribute on a per class level would not be honored, breaking the use case of per-class-hierarchy MetaData for abstract declarative classes and mixins.

    See also

    metadata

    References: #6128

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Restored the ResultProxy name back to the sqlalchemy.engine namespace. This name refers to the LegacyCursorResult object.

    References: #6119

schema

  • [schema] [bug]

    Adjusted the logic that emits DROP statements for Sequence objects among the dropping of multiple tables, such that all Sequence objects are dropped after all tables, even if the given Sequence is related only to a Table object and not directly to the overall MetaData object. The use case supports the same Sequence being associated with more than one Table at a time.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #6071

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Added support for the Mypy extension to correctly interpret a declarative base class that’s generated using the as_declarative() function as well as the registry.as_declarative_base() method.

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed bug in Mypy plugin where the Python type detection for the Boolean column type would produce an exception; additionally implemented support for Enum, including detection of a string-based enum vs. use of Python enum.Enum.

    References: #6109

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [bug] [types]

    Adjusted the psycopg2 dialect to emit an explicit PostgreSQL-style cast for bound parameters that contain ARRAY elements. This allows the full range of datatypes to function correctly within arrays. The asyncpg dialect already generated these internal casts in the final statement. This also includes support for array slice updates as well as the PostgreSQL-specific ARRAY.contains() method.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #6023

  • [postgresql] [bug] [reflection]

    Fixed reflection of identity columns in tables with mixed case names in PostgreSQL.

    References: #6129

sqlite

  • [sqlite] [feature] [asyncio]

    Added support for the aiosqlite database driver for use with the SQLAlchemy asyncio extension.

    See also

    Aiosqlite

    References: #5920

  • [sqlite] [bug] [regression]

    Repaired the pysqlcipher dialect to connect correctly which had regressed in 1.4, and added test + CI support to maintain the driver in working condition. The dialect now imports the sqlcipher3 module for Python 3 by default before falling back to pysqlcipher3 which is documented as now being unmaintained.

    See also

    Pysqlcipher

    References: #5848

1.4.2

Released: March 19, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [usecase] [dataclasses]

    Added support for the declared_attr object to work in the context of dataclass fields.

    References: #6100

  • [orm] [bug] [dataclasses]

    Fixed issue in new ORM dataclasses functionality where dataclass fields on an abstract base or mixin that contained column or other mapping constructs would not be mapped if they also included a “default” key within the dataclasses.field() object.

    References: #6093

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the Query.selectable accessor, which is a synonym for Query.__clause_element__(), got removed, it’s now restored.

    References: #6088

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where use of an unnamed SQL expression such as a SQL function would raise a column targeting error if the query itself were using joinedload for an entity and was also being wrapped in a subquery by the joinedload eager loading process.

    References: #6086

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the Query.filter_by() method would fail to locate the correct source entity if the Query.join() method had been used targeting an entity without any kind of ON clause.

    References: #6092

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the SQL compilation of a Function would not work correctly if the object had been “annotated”, which is an internal memoization process used mostly by the ORM. In particular it could affect ORM lazy loads which make greater use of this feature in 1.4.

    References: #6095

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed regression where the ConcreteBase would fail to map at all when a mapped column name overlapped with the discriminator column name, producing an assertion error. The use case here did not function correctly in 1.3 as the polymorphic union would produce a query that ignored the discriminator column entirely, while emitting duplicate column warnings. As 1.4’s architecture cannot easily reproduce this essentially broken behavior of 1.3 at the select() level right now, the use case now raises an informative error message instructing the user to use the .ConcreteBase._concrete_discriminator_name attribute to resolve the conflict. To assist with this configuration, .ConcreteBase._concrete_discriminator_name may be placed on the base class only where it will be automatically used by subclasses; previously this was not the case.

    References: #6090

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Restored top level import for sqlalchemy.engine.reflection. This ensures that the base Inspector class is properly registered so that inspect() works for third party dialects that don’t otherwise import this package.

sql

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue where using a func that includes dotted packagenames would fail to be cacheable by the SQL caching system due to a Python list of names that needed to be a tuple.

    References: #6101

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in the case() construct, where the “dictionary” form of argument specification failed to work correctly if it were passed positionally, rather than as a “whens” keyword argument.

    References: #6097

mypy

  • [mypy] [bug]

    Fixed issue in MyPy extension which crashed on detecting the type of a Column if the type were given with a module prefix like sa.Integer().

    References: #sqlalchemy/sqlalchemy2-stubs/2

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [usecase]

    Rename the column name used by a reflection query that used a reserved word in some postgresql compatible databases.

    References: #6982

1.4.1

Released: March 17, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where producing a Core expression construct such as select() using ORM entities would eagerly configure the mappers, in an effort to maintain compatibility with the Query object which necessarily does this to support many backref-related legacy cases. However, core select() constructs are also used in mapper configurations and such, and to that degree this eager configuration is more of an inconvenience, so eager configure has been disabled for the select() and other Core constructs in the absence of ORM loading types of functions such as Load.

    The change maintains the behavior of Query so that backwards compatibility is maintained. However, when using a select() in conjunction with ORM entities, a “backref” that isn’t explicitly placed on one of the classes until mapper configure time won’t be available unless configure_mappers() or the newer configure() has been called elsewhere. Prefer using relationship.back_populates for more explicit relationship configuration which does not have the eager configure requirement.

    References: #6066

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed a critical regression in the relationship lazy loader where the SQL criteria used to fetch a related many-to-one object could go stale in relation to other memoized structures within the loader if the mapper had configuration changes, such as can occur when mappers are late configured or configured on demand, producing a comparison to None and returning no object. Huge thanks to Alan Hamlett for their help tracking this down late into the night.

    References: #6055

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the Query.exists() method would fail to create an expression if the entity list of the Query were an arbitrary SQL column expression.

    References: #6076

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where calling upon Query.count() in conjunction with a loader option such as joinedload() would fail to ignore the loader option. This is a behavior that has always been very specific to the Query.count() method; an error is normally raised if a given Query has options that don’t apply to what it is returning.

    References: #6052

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression in Session.identity_key(), including that the method and related methods were not covered by any unit test as well as that the method contained a typo preventing it from functioning correctly.

    References: #6067

orm declarative

  • [orm] [declarative] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed bug where user-mapped classes that contained an attribute named “registry” would cause conflicts with the new registry-based mapping system when using DeclarativeMeta. While the attribute remains something that can be set explicitly on a declarative base to be consumed by the metaclass, once located it is placed under a private class variable so it does not conflict with future subclasses that use the same name for other purposes.

    References: #6054

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    The Python namedtuple() has the behavior such that the names count and index will be served as tuple values if the named tuple includes those names; if they are absent, then their behavior as methods of collections.abc.Sequence is maintained. Therefore the Row and LegacyRow classes have been fixed so that they work in this same way, maintaining the expected behavior for database rows that have columns named “index” or “count”.

    References: #6074

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where a new setinputsizes() API that’s available for pyodbc was enabled, which is apparently incompatible with pyodbc’s fast_executemany() mode in the absence of more accurate typing information, which as of yet is not fully implemented or tested. The pyodbc dialect and connector has been modified so that setinputsizes() is not used at all unless the parameter use_setinputsizes is passed to the dialect, e.g. via create_engine(), at which point its behavior can be customized using the DialectEvents.do_setinputsizes() hook.

    References: #6058

misc

  • [bug] [regression]

    Added back items and values to ColumnCollection class. The regression was introduced while adding support for duplicate columns in from clauses and selectable in ticket #4753.

    References: #6068

1.4.0

Released: March 15, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [bug]

    Removed very old warning that states that passive_deletes is not intended for many-to-one relationships. While it is likely that in many cases placing this parameter on a many-to-one relationship is not what was intended, there are use cases where delete cascade may want to be disallowed following from such a relationship.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #5983

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the process of joining two tables could fail if one of the tables had an unrelated, unresolvable foreign key constraint which would raise NoReferenceError within the join process, which nonetheless could be bypassed to allow the join to complete. The logic which tested the exception for significance within the process would make assumptions about the construct which would fail.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #5952

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue where the MutableComposite construct could be placed into an invalid state when the parent object was already loaded, and then covered by a subsequent query, due to the composite properties’ refresh handler replacing the object with a new one not handled by the mutable extension.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #6001

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed regression where the relationship.query_class parameter stopped being functional for “dynamic” relationships. The AppenderQuery remains dependent on the legacy Query class; users are encouraged to migrate from the use of “dynamic” relationships to using with_parent() instead.

    References: #5981

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where Query.join() would produce no effect if the query itself as well as the join target were against a Table object, rather than a mapped class. This was part of a more systemic issue where the legacy ORM query compiler would not be correctly used from a Query if the statement produced had not ORM entities present within it.

    References: #6003

  • [orm] [bug] [asyncio]

    The API for AsyncSession.delete() is now an awaitable; this method cascades along relationships which must be loaded in a similar manner as the AsyncSession.merge() method.

    References: #5998

  • [orm] [bug]

    The unit of work process now turns off all “lazy=’raise’” behavior altogether when a flush is proceeding. While there are areas where the UOW is sometimes loading things that aren’t ultimately needed, the lazy=”raise” strategy is not helpful here as the user often does not have much control or visibility into the flush process.

    References: #5984

engine

  • [engine] [bug]

    Fixed bug where the “schema_translate_map” feature failed to be taken into account for the use case of direct execution of DefaultGenerator objects such as sequences, which included the case where they were “pre-executed” in order to generate primary key values when implicit_returning was disabled.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #5929

  • [engine] [bug]

    Improved engine logging to note ROLLBACK and COMMIT which is logged while the DBAPI driver is in AUTOCOMMIT mode. These ROLLBACK/COMMIT are library level and do not have any effect when AUTOCOMMIT is in effect, however it’s still worthwhile to log as these indicate where SQLAlchemy sees the “transaction” demarcation.

    References: #6002

  • [engine] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed a regression where the “reset agent” of the connection pool wasn’t really being utilized by the Connection when it were closed, and also leading to a double-rollback scenario that was somewhat wasteful. The newer architecture of the engine has been updated so that the connection pool “reset-on-return” logic will be skipped when the Connection explicitly closes out the transaction before returning the pool to the connection.

    References: #6004

sql

  • [sql] [change]

    Altered the compilation for the CTE construct so that a string is returned representing the inner SELECT statement if the CTE is stringified directly, outside of the context of an enclosing SELECT; This is the same behavior of FromClause.alias() and Select.subquery(). Previously, a blank string would be returned as the CTE is normally placed above a SELECT after that SELECT has been generated, which is generally misleading when debugging.

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed bug where the “percent escaping” feature that occurs with dialects that use the “format” or “pyformat” bound parameter styles was not enabled for the Operators.op() and custom_op constructs, for custom operators that use percent signs. The percent sign will now be automatically doubled based on the paramstyle as necessary.

    References: #6016

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where the “unsupported compilation error” for unknown datatypes would fail to raise correctly.

    References: #5979

  • [sql] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed regression where usage of the standalone distinct() used in the form of being directly SELECTed would fail to be locatable in the result set by column identity, which is how the ORM locates columns. While standalone distinct() is not oriented towards being directly SELECTed (use select.distinct() for a regular SELECT DISTINCT..) , it was usable to a limited extent in this way previously (but wouldn’t work in subqueries, for example). The column targeting for unary expressions such as “DISTINCT <col>” has been improved so that this case works again, and an additional improvement has been made so that usage of this form in a subquery at least generates valid SQL which was not the case previously.

    The change additionally enhances the ability to target elements in row._mapping based on SQL expression objects in ORM-enabled SELECT statements, including whether the statement was invoked by connection.execute() or session.execute().

    References: #6008

schema

  • [schema] [bug] [sqlite]

    Fixed issue where the CHECK constraint generated by Boolean or Enum would fail to render the naming convention correctly after the first compilation, due to an unintended change of state within the name given to the constraint. This issue was first introduced in 0.9 in the fix for issue #3067, and the fix revises the approach taken at that time which appears to have been more involved than what was needed.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #6007

  • [schema] [bug]

    Repaired / implemented support for primary key constraint naming conventions that use column names/keys/etc as part of the convention. In particular, this includes that the PrimaryKeyConstraint object that’s automatically associated with a Table will update its name as new primary key Column objects are added to the table and then to the constraint. Internal failure modes related to this constraint construction process including no columns present, no name present or blank name present are now accommodated.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #5919

  • [schema] [bug]

    Deprecated all schema-level .copy() methods and renamed to _copy(). These are not standard Python “copy()” methods as they typically rely upon being instantiated within particular contexts which are passed to the method as optional keyword arguments. The Table.tometadata() method is the public API that provides copying for Table objects.

    References: #5953

mypy

  • [mypy] [feature]

    Rudimentary and experimental support for Mypy has been added in the form of a new plugin, which itself depends on new typing stubs for SQLAlchemy. The plugin allows declarative mappings in their standard form to both be compatible with Mypy as well as to provide typing support for mapped classes and instances.

    References: #4609

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [usecase] [asyncio] [mysql]

    Added an asyncio.Lock() within SQLAlchemy’s emulated DBAPI cursor, local to the connection, for the asyncpg and aiomysql dialects for the scope of the cursor.execute() and cursor.executemany() methods. The rationale is to prevent failures and corruption for the case where the connection is used in multiple awaitables at once.

    While this use case can also occur with threaded code and non-asyncio dialects, we anticipate this kind of use will be more common under asyncio, as the asyncio API is encouraging of such use. It’s definitely better to use a distinct connection per concurrent awaitable however as concurrency will not be achieved otherwise.

    For the asyncpg dialect, this is so that the space between the call to prepare() and fetch() is prevented from allowing concurrent executions on the connection from causing interface error exceptions, as well as preventing race conditions when starting a new transaction. Other PostgreSQL DBAPIs are threadsafe at the connection level so this intends to provide a similar behavior, outside the realm of server side cursors.

    For the aiomysql dialect, the mutex will provide safety such that the statement execution and the result set fetch, which are two distinct steps at the connection level, won’t get corrupted by concurrent executions on the same connection.

    References: #5967

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where using aggregate_order_by would return ARRAY(NullType) under certain conditions, interfering with the ability of the result object to return data correctly.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.24

    References: #5989

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fix a reflection error for MSSQL 2005 introduced by the reflection of filtered indexes.

    References: #5919

misc

  • [usecase] [ext]

    Add new parameter AutomapBase.prepare.reflection_options to allow passing of MetaData.reflect() options like only or dialect-specific reflection options like oracle_resolve_synonyms.

    References: #5942

  • [bug] [ext]

    The sqlalchemy.ext.mutable extension now tracks the “parents” collection using the InstanceState associated with objects, rather than the object itself. The latter approach required that the object be hashable so that it can be inside of a WeakKeyDictionary, which goes against the behavioral contract of the ORM overall which is that ORM mapped objects do not need to provide any particular kind of __hash__() method and that unhashable objects are supported.

    References: #6020

1.4.0b3

Released: February 15, 2021

orm

  • [orm] [feature]

    The ORM used in 2.0 style can now return ORM objects from the rows returned by an UPDATE..RETURNING or INSERT..RETURNING statement, by supplying the construct to Select.from_statement() in an ORM context.

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in new 1.4/2.0 style ORM queries where a statement-level label style would not be preserved in the keys used by result rows; this has been applied to all combinations of Core/ORM columns / session vs. connection etc. so that the linkage from statement to result row is the same in all cases. As part of this change, the labeling of column expressions in rows has been improved to retain the original name of the ORM attribute even if used in a subquery.

    References: #5933

engine

  • [engine] [bug] [postgresql]

    Continued with the improvement made as part of #5653 to further support bound parameter names, including those generated against column names, for names that include colons, parenthesis, and question marks, as well as improved test support, so that bound parameter names even if they are auto-derived from column names should have no problem including for parenthesis in psycopg2’s “pyformat” style.

    As part of this change, the format used by the asyncpg DBAPI adapter (which is local to SQLAlchemy’s asyncpg dialect) has been changed from using “qmark” paramstyle to “format”, as there is a standard and internally supported SQL string escaping style for names that use percent signs with “format” style (i.e. to double percent signs), as opposed to names that use question marks with “qmark” style (where an escaping system is not defined by pep-249 or Python).

    References: #5941

sql

  • [sql] [usecase] [postgresql] [sqlite]

    Enhance set_ keyword of OnConflictDoUpdate to accept a ColumnCollection, such as the .c. collection from a Selectable, or the .excluded contextual object.

    References: #5939

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed bug where the “cartesian product” assertion was not correctly accommodating for joins between tables that relied upon the use of LATERAL to connect from a subquery to another subquery in the enclosing context.

    References: #5924

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed 1.4 regression where the Function.in_() method was not covered by tests and failed to function properly in all cases.

    References: #5934

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed regression where use of an arbitrary iterable with the select() function was not working, outside of plain lists. The forwards/backwards compatibility logic here now checks for a wider range of incoming “iterable” types including that a .c collection from a selectable can be passed directly. Pull request compliments of Oliver Rice.

    References: #5935

1.4.0b2

Released: February 3, 2021

general

  • [general] [bug]

    Fixed a SQLite source file that had non-ascii characters inside of its docstring without a source encoding, introduced within the “INSERT..ON CONFLICT” feature, which would cause failures under Python 2.

platform

  • [platform] [performance]

    Adjusted some elements related to internal class production at import time which added significant latency to the time spent to import the library vs. that of 1.3. The time is now about 20-30% slower than 1.3 instead of 200%.

    References: #5681

orm

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Added ORMExecuteState.bind_mapper and ORMExecuteState.all_mappers accessors to ORMExecuteState event object, so that handlers can respond to the target mapper and/or mapped class or classes involved in an ORM statement execution.

  • [orm] [usecase] [asyncio]

    Added AsyncSession.scalar(), AsyncSession.get() as well as support for sessionmaker.begin() to work as an async context manager with AsyncSession. Also added AsyncSession.in_transaction() accessor.

    References: #5796, #5797, #5802

  • [orm] [changed]

    Mapper “configuration”, which occurs within the configure_mappers() function, is now organized to be on a per-registry basis. This allows for example the mappers within a certain declarative base to be configured, but not those of another base that is also present in memory. The goal is to provide a means of reducing application startup time by only running the “configure” process for sets of mappers that are needed. This also adds the registry.configure() method that will run configure for the mappers local in a particular registry only.

    References: #5897

  • [orm] [bug]

    Added a comprehensive check and an informative error message for the case where a mapped class, or a string mapped class name, is passed to relationship.secondary. This is an extremely common error which warrants a clear message.

    Additionally, added a new rule to the class registry resolution such that with regards to the relationship.secondary parameter, if a mapped class and its table are of the identical string name, the Table will be favored when resolving this parameter. In all other cases, the class continues to be favored if a class and table share the identical name.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.21

    References: #5774

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug involving the restore_load_context option of ORM events such as InstanceEvents.load() such that the flag would not be carried along to subclasses which were mapped after the event handler were first established.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.21

    References: #5737

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed issue in new Session similar to that of the Connection where the new “autobegin” logic could be tripped into a re-entrant (recursive) state if SQL were executed within the SessionEvents.after_transaction_create() event hook.

    References: #5845

  • [orm] [bug] [unitofwork]

    Improved the unit of work topological sorting system such that the toplogical sort is now deterministic based on the sorting of the input set, which itself is now sorted at the level of mappers, so that the same inputs of affected mappers should produce the same output every time, among mappers / tables that don’t have any dependency on each other. This further reduces the chance of deadlocks as can be observed in a flush that UPDATEs among multiple, unrelated tables such that row locks are generated.

    References: #5735

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed regression where the Bundle.single_entity flag would take effect for a Bundle even though it were not set. Additionally, this flag is legacy as it only makes sense for the Query object and not 2.0 style execution. a deprecation warning is emitted when used with new-style execution.

    References: #5702

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed regression where creating an aliased construct against a plain selectable and including a name would raise an assertionerror.

    References: #5750

  • [orm] [bug]

    Related to the fixes for the lambda criteria system within Core, within the ORM implemented a variety of fixes for the with_loader_criteria() feature as well as the SessionEvents.do_orm_execute() event handler that is often used in conjunction [ticket:5760]:

    • fixed issue where with_loader_criteria() function would fail if the given entity or base included non-mapped mixins in its descending class hierarchy [ticket:5766]

    • The with_loader_criteria() feature is now unconditionally disabled for the case of ORM “refresh” operations, including loads of deferred or expired column attributes as well as for explicit operations like Session.refresh(). These loads are necessarily based on primary key identity where additional WHERE criteria is never appropriate. [ticket:5762]

    • Added new attribute ORMExecuteState.is_column_load to indicate that a SessionEvents.do_orm_execute() handler that a particular operation is a primary-key-directed column attribute load, where additional criteria should not be added. The with_loader_criteria() function as above ignores these in any case now. [ticket:5761]

    • Fixed issue where the ORMExecuteState.is_relationship_load attribute would not be set correctly for many lazy loads as well as all selectinloads. The flag is essential in order to test if options should be added to statements or if they would already have been propagated via relationship loads. [ticket:5764]

    References: #5760, #5761, #5762, #5764, #5766

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed 1.4 regression where the use of Query.having() in conjunction with queries with internally adapted SQL elements (common in inheritance scenarios) would fail due to an incorrect function call. Pull request courtesy esoh.

    References: #5781

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed an issue where the API to create a custom executable SQL construct using the sqlalchemy.ext.compiles extension according to the documentation that’s been up for many years would no longer function if only Executable, ClauseElement were used as the base classes, additional classes were needed if wanting to use Session.execute(). This has been resolved so that those extra classes aren’t needed.

  • [orm] [bug] [regression]

    Fixed ORM unit of work regression where an errant “assert primary_key” statement interferes with primary key generation sequences that don’t actually consider the columns in the table to use a real primary key constraint, instead using mapper.primary_key to establish certain columns as “primary”.

    References: #5867

orm declarative

  • [orm] [declarative] [feature]

    Added an alternate resolution scheme to Declarative that will extract the SQLAlchemy column or mapped property from the “metadata” dictionary of a dataclasses.Field object. This allows full declarative mappings to be combined with dataclass fields.

    References: #5745

engine

  • [engine] [feature]

    Dialect-specific constructs such as Insert.on_conflict_do_update() can now stringify in-place without the need to specify an explicit dialect object. The constructs, when called upon for str(), print(), etc. now have internal direction to call upon their appropriate dialect rather than the “default”dialect which doesn’t know how to stringify these. The approach is also adapted to generic schema-level create/drop such as AddConstraint, which will adapt its stringify dialect to one indicated by the element within it, such as the ExcludeConstraint object.

  • [engine] [feature]

    Added new execution option Connection.execution_options.logging_token. This option will add an additional per-message token to log messages generated by the Connection as it executes statements. This token is not part of the logger name itself (that part can be affected using the existing create_engine.logging_name parameter), so is appropriate for ad-hoc connection use without the side effect of creating many new loggers. The option can be set at the level of Connection or Engine.

    References: #5911

  • [engine] [bug] [sqlite]

    Fixed bug in the 2.0 “future” version of Engine where emitting SQL during the EngineEvents.begin() event hook would cause a re-entrant (recursive) condition due to autobegin, affecting among other things the recipe documented for SQLite to allow for savepoints and serializable isolation support.

    References: #5845

  • [engine] [bug] [oracle] [postgresql]

    Adjusted the “setinputsizes” logic relied upon by the cx_Oracle, asyncpg and pg8000 dialects to support a TypeDecorator that includes an override the TypeDecorator.get_dbapi_type() method.

  • [engine] [bug]

    Added the “future” keyword to the list of words that are known by the engine_from_config() function, so that the values “true” and “false” may be configured as “boolean” values when using a key such as sqlalchemy.future = true or sqlalchemy.future = false.

sql

  • [sql] [feature]

    Implemented support for “table valued functions” along with additional syntaxes supported by PostgreSQL, one of the most commonly requested features. Table valued functions are SQL functions that return lists of values or rows, and are prevalent in PostgreSQL in the area of JSON functions, where the “table value” is commonly referred towards as the “record” datatype. Table valued functions are also supported by Oracle and SQL Server.

    Features added include:

    References: #3566

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Multiple calls to “returning”, e.g. Insert.returning(), may now be chained to add new columns to the RETURNING clause.

    References: #5695

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Added Select.outerjoin_from() method to complement Select.join_from().

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Adjusted the “literal_binds” feature of Compiler to render NULL for a bound parameter that has None as the value, either explicitly passed or omitted. The previous error message “bind parameter without a renderable value” is removed, and a missing or None value will now render NULL in all cases. Previously, rendering of NULL was starting to happen for DML statements due to internal refactorings, but was not explicitly part of test coverage, which it now is.

    While no error is raised, when the context is within that of a column comparison, and the operator is not “IS”/”IS NOT”, a warning is emitted that this is not generally useful from a SQL perspective.

    References: #5888

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in new Select.join() method where chaining from the current JOIN wasn’t looking at the right state, causing an expression like “FROM a JOIN b <onclause>, b JOIN c <onclause>” rather than “FROM a JOIN b <onclause> JOIN c <onclause>”.

    References: #5858

  • [sql] [bug]

    Deprecation warnings are emitted under “SQLALCHEMY_WARN_20” mode when passing a plain string to Session.execute().

    References: #5754

  • [sql] [bug] [orm]

    A wide variety of fixes to the “lambda SQL” feature introduced at Using Lambdas to add significant speed gains to statement production have been implemented based on user feedback, with an emphasis on its use within the with_loader_criteria() feature where it is most prominently used [ticket:5760]:

    • fixed issue where boolean True/False values referred towards in the closure variables of the lambda would cause failures [ticket:5763]

    • Repaired a non-working detection for Python functions embedded in the lambda that produce bound values; this case is likely not supportable so raises an informative error, where the function should be invoked outside the lambda itself. New documentation has been added to further detail this behavior. [ticket:5770]

    • The lambda system by default now rejects the use of non-SQL elements within the closure variables of the lambda entirely, where the error suggests the two options of either explicitly ignoring closure variables that are not SQL parameters, or specifying a specific set of values to be considered as part of the cache key based on hash value. This critically prevents the lambda system from assuming that arbitrary objects within the lambda’s closure are appropriate for caching while also refusing to ignore them by default, preventing the case where their state might not be constant and have an impact on the SQL construct produced. The error message is comprehensive and new documentation has been added to further detail this behavior. [ticket:5765]

    • Fixed support for the edge case where an in_() expression against a list of SQL elements, such as literal() objects, would fail to be accommodated correctly. [ticket:5768]

    References: #5760, #5763, #5765, #5768, #5770

  • [sql] [bug] [mysql] [postgresql] [sqlite]

    An informative error message is now raised for a selected set of DML methods (currently all part of Insert constructs) if they are called a second time, which would implicitly cancel out the previous setting. The methods altered include: on_conflict_do_update, on_conflict_do_nothing (SQLite), on_conflict_do_update, on_conflict_do_nothing (PostgreSQL), on_duplicate_key_update (MySQL)

    References: #5169

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue in new Values construct where passing tuples of objects would fall back to per-value type detection rather than making use of the Column objects passed directly to Values that tells SQLAlchemy what the expected type is. This would lead to issues for objects such as enumerations and numpy strings that are not actually necessary since the expected type is given.

    References: #5785

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where a RemovedIn20Warning would erroneously emit when the .bind attribute were accessed internally on objects, particularly when stringifying a SQL construct.

    References: #5717

  • [sql] [bug]

    Properly render cycle=False and order=False as NO CYCLE and NO ORDER in Sequence and Identity objects.

    References: #5722

  • [sql]

    Replace Query.with_labels() and GenerativeSelect.apply_labels() with explicit getters and setters GenerativeSelect.get_label_style() and GenerativeSelect.set_label_style() to accommodate the three supported label styles: LABEL_STYLE_DISAMBIGUATE_ONLY, LABEL_STYLE_TABLENAME_PLUS_COL, and LABEL_STYLE_NONE.

    In addition, for Core and “future style” ORM queries, LABEL_STYLE_DISAMBIGUATE_ONLY is now the default label style. This style differs from the existing “no labels” style in that labeling is applied in the case of column name conflicts; with LABEL_STYLE_NONE, a duplicate column name is not accessible via name in any case.

    For cases where labeling is significant, namely that the .c collection of a subquery is able to refer to all columns unambiguously, the behavior of LABEL_STYLE_DISAMBIGUATE_ONLY is now sufficient for all SQLAlchemy features across Core and ORM which involve this behavior. Result set rows since SQLAlchemy 1.0 are usually aligned with column constructs positionally.

    For legacy ORM queries using Query, the table-plus-column names labeling style applied by LABEL_STYLE_TABLENAME_PLUS_COL continues to be used so that existing test suites and logging facilities see no change in behavior by default.

    References: #4757

schema

asyncio

  • [asyncio] [usecase]

    The AsyncEngine, AsyncConnection and AsyncTransaction objects may be compared using Python == or !=, which will compare the two given objects based on the “sync” object they are proxying towards. This is useful as there are cases particularly for AsyncTransaction where multiple instances of AsyncTransaction can be proxying towards the same sync Transaction, and are actually equivalent. The AsyncConnection.get_transaction() method will currently return a new proxying AsyncTransaction each time as the AsyncTransaction is not otherwise statefully associated with its originating AsyncConnection.

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Adjusted the greenlet integration, which provides support for Python asyncio in SQLAlchemy, to accommodate for the handling of Python contextvars (introduced in Python 3.7) for greenlet versions greater than 0.4.17. Greenlet version 0.4.17 added automatic handling of contextvars in a backwards-incompatible way; we’ve coordinated with the greenlet authors to add a preferred API for this in versions subsequent to 0.4.17 which is now supported by SQLAlchemy’s greenlet integration. For greenlet versions prior to 0.4.17 no behavioral change is needed, version 0.4.17 itself is blocked from the dependencies.

    References: #5615

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Implemented “connection-binding” for AsyncSession, the ability to pass an AsyncConnection to create an AsyncSession. Previously, this use case was not implemented and would use the associated engine when the connection were passed. This fixes the issue where the “join a session to an external transaction” use case would not work correctly for the AsyncSession. Additionally, added methods AsyncConnection.in_transaction(), AsyncConnection.in_nested_transaction(), AsyncConnection.get_transaction(), AsyncConnection.get_nested_transaction() and AsyncConnection.info attribute.

    References: #5811

  • [asyncio] [bug]

    Fixed bug in asyncio connection pool where asyncio.TimeoutError would be raised rather than TimeoutError. Also repaired the create_engine.pool_timeout parameter set to zero when using the async engine, which previously would ignore the timeout and block rather than timing out immediately as is the behavior with regular QueuePool.

    References: #5827

  • [asyncio] [bug] [pool]

    When using an asyncio engine, the connection pool will now detach and discard a pooled connection that is was not explicitly closed/returned to the pool when its tracking object is garbage collected, emitting a warning that the connection was not properly closed. As this operation occurs during Python gc finalizers, it’s not safe to run any IO operations upon the connection including transaction rollback or connection close as this will often be outside of the event loop.

    The AsyncAdaptedQueue used by default on async dpapis should instantiate a queue only when it’s first used to avoid binding it to a possibly wrong event loop.

    References: #5823

  • [asyncio]

    The SQLAlchemy async mode now detects and raises an informative error when an non asyncio compatible DBAPI is used. Using a standard DBAPI with async SQLAlchemy will cause it to block like any sync call, interrupting the executing asyncio loop.

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [usecase]

    Added new parameter ExcludeConstraint.ops to the ExcludeConstraint object, to support operator class specification with this constraint. Pull request courtesy Alon Menczer.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.21

    References: #5604

  • [postgresql] [usecase]

    Added a read/write .autocommit attribute to the DBAPI-adaptation layer for the asyncpg dialect. This so that when working with DBAPI-specific schemes that need to use “autocommit” directly with the DBAPI connection, the same .autocommit attribute which works with both psycopg2 as well as pg8000 is available.

  • [postgresql] [changed]

    Fixed issue where the psycopg2 dialect would silently pass the use_native_unicode=False flag without actually having any effect under Python 3, as the psycopg2 DBAPI uses Unicode unconditionally under Python 3. This usage now raises an ArgumentError when used under Python 3. Added test support for Python 2.

  • [postgresql] [performance]

    Enhanced the performance of the asyncpg dialect by caching the asyncpg PreparedStatement objects on a per-connection basis. For a test case that makes use of the same statement on a set of pooled connections this appears to grant a 10-20% speed improvement. The cache size is adjustable and may also be disabled.

  • [postgresql] [bug] [mysql]

    Fixed regression introduced in 1.3.2 for the PostgreSQL dialect, also copied out to the MySQL dialect’s feature in 1.3.18, where usage of a non Table construct such as text() as the argument to Select.with_for_update.of would fail to be accommodated correctly within the PostgreSQL or MySQL compilers.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.21

    References: #5729

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Fixed a small regression where the query for “show standard_conforming_strings” upon initialization would be emitted even if the server version info were detected as less than version 8.2, previously it would only occur for server version 8.2 or greater. The query fails on Amazon Redshift which reports a PG server version older than this value.

    References: #5698

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    Established support for Column objects as well as ORM instrumented attributes as keys in the set_ dictionary passed to the Insert.on_conflict_do_update() and Insert.on_conflict_do_update() methods, which match to the Column objects in the .c collection of the target Table. Previously, only string column names were expected; a column expression would be assumed to be an out-of-table expression that would render fully along with a warning.

    References: #5722

  • [postgresql] [bug] [asyncio]

    Fixed bug in asyncpg dialect where a failure during a “commit” or less likely a “rollback” should cancel the entire transaction; it’s no longer possible to emit rollback. Previously the connection would continue to await a rollback that could not succeed as asyncpg would reject it.

    References: #5824

mysql

  • [mysql] [feature]

    Added support for the aiomysql driver when using the asyncio SQLAlchemy extension.

    See also

    aiomysql

    References: #5747

  • [mysql] [bug] [reflection]

    Fixed issue where reflecting a server default on MariaDB only that contained a decimal point in the value would fail to be reflected correctly, leading towards a reflected table that lacked any server default.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.21

    References: #5744

sqlite

  • [sqlite] [usecase]

    Implemented INSERT… ON CONFLICT clause for SQLite. Pull request courtesy Ramon Williams.

    References: #4010

  • [sqlite] [bug]

    Use python re.search() instead of re.match() as the operation used by the Column.regexp_match() method when using sqlite. This matches the behavior of regular expressions on other databases as well as that of well-known SQLite plugins.

    References: #5699

mssql

  • [mssql] [bug] [datatypes] [mysql]

    Decimal accuracy and behavior has been improved when extracting floating point and/or decimal values from JSON strings using the Comparator.as_float() method, when the numeric value inside of the JSON string has many significant digits; previously, MySQL backends would truncate values with many significant digits and SQL Server backends would raise an exception due to a DECIMAL cast with insufficient significant digits. Both backends now use a FLOAT-compatible approach that does not hardcode significant digits for floating point values. For precision numerics, a new method Comparator.as_numeric() has been added which accepts arguments for precision and scale, and will return values as Python Decimal objects with no floating point conversion assuming the DBAPI supports it (all but pysqlite).

    References: #5788

oracle

  • [oracle] [bug]

    Fixed regression which occurred due to #5755 which implemented isolation level support for Oracle. It has been reported that many Oracle accounts don’t actually have permission to query the v$transaction view so this feature has been altered to gracefully fallback when it fails upon database connect, where the dialect will assume “READ COMMITTED” is the default isolation level as was the case prior to SQLAlchemy 1.3.21. However, explicit use of the Connection.get_isolation_level() method must now necessarily raise an exception, as Oracle databases with this restriction explicitly disallow the user from reading the current isolation level.

    This change is also backported to: 1.3.22

    References: #5784

  • [oracle] [bug]

    Oracle two-phase transactions at a rudimentary level are now no longer deprecated. After receiving support from cx_Oracle devs we can provide for basic xid + begin/prepare support with some limitations, which will work more fully in an upcoming release of cx_Oracle. Two phase “recovery” is not currently supported.

    References: #5884

  • [oracle] [bug]

    The Oracle dialect now uses select sys_context( 'userenv', 'current_schema' ) from dual to get the default schema name, rather than SELECT USER FROM DUAL, to accommodate for changes to the session-local schema name under Oracle.

    References: #5716

misc

  • [usecase] [pool] [tests]

    Improve documentation and add test for sub-second pool timeouts. Pull request courtesy Jordan Pittier.

    References: #5582

  • [usecase] [pool]

    The internal mechanics of the engine connection routine has been altered such that it’s now guaranteed that a user-defined event handler for the PoolEvents.connect() handler, when established using insert=True, will allow an event handler to run that is definitely invoked before any dialect-specific initialization starts up, most notably when it does things like detect default schema name. Previously, this would occur in most cases but not unconditionally. A new example is added to the schema documentation illustrating how to establish the “default schema name” within an on-connect event.

    References: #5497, #5708

  • [bug] [reflection]

    Fixed bug where the now-deprecated autoload parameter was being called internally within the reflection routines when a related table were reflected.

    References: #5684

  • [bug] [pool]

    Fixed regression where a connection pool event specified with a keyword, most notably insert=True, would be lost when the event were set up. This would prevent startup events that need to fire before dialect-level events from working correctly.

    References: #5708

  • [bug] [pool] [pypy]

    Fixed issue where connection pool would not return connections to the pool or otherwise be finalized upon garbage collection under pypy if the checked out connection fell out of scope without being closed. This is a long standing issue due to pypy’s difference in GC behavior that does not call weakref finalizers if they are relative to another object that is also being garbage collected. A strong reference to the related record is now maintained so that the weakref has a strong-referenced “base” to trigger off of.

    References: #5842

1.4.0b1

Released: November 2, 2020

general

  • [general] [change]

    ”python setup.py test” is no longer a test runner, as this is deprecated by Pypa. Please use “tox” with no arguments for a basic test run.

    References: #4789

  • [general] [bug]

    Refactored the internal conventions used to cross-import modules that have mutual dependencies between them, such that the inspected arguments of functions and methods are no longer modified. This allows tools like pylint, Pycharm, other code linters, as well as hypothetical pep-484 implementations added in the future to function correctly as they no longer see missing arguments to function calls. The new approach is also simpler and more performant.

    References: #4656, #4689

platform

  • [platform] [change]

    The importlib_metadata library is used to scan for setuptools entrypoints rather than pkg_resources. as importlib_metadata is a small library that is included as of Python 3.8, the compatibility library is installed as a dependency for Python versions older than 3.8.

    References: #5400

  • [platform] [change]

    Installation has been modernized to use setup.cfg for most package metadata.

    References: #5404

  • [platform] [removed]

    Dropped support for python 3.4 and 3.5 that has reached EOL. SQLAlchemy 1.4 series requires python 2.7 or 3.6+.

    References: #5634

  • [platform] [removed]

    Removed all dialect code related to support for Jython and zxJDBC. Jython has not been supported by SQLAlchemy for many years and it is not expected that the current zxJDBC code is at all functional; for the moment it just takes up space and adds confusion by showing up in documentation. At the moment, it appears that Jython has achieved Python 2.7 support in its releases but not Python 3. If Jython were to be supported again, the form it should take is against the Python 3 version of Jython, and the various zxJDBC stubs for various backends should be implemented as a third party dialect.

    References: #5094

orm

  • [orm] [feature]

    The ORM can now generate queries previously only available when using Query using the select() construct directly. A new system by which ORM “plugins” may establish themselves within a Core Select allow the majority of query building logic previously inside of Query to now take place within a compilation-level extension for Select. Similar changes have been made for the Update and Delete constructs as well. The constructs when invoked using Session.execute() now do ORM-related work within the method. For Select, the Result object returned now contains ORM-level entities and results.

    References: #5159

  • [orm] [feature]

    Added the ability to add arbitrary criteria to the ON clause generated by a relationship attribute in a query, which applies to methods such as Query.join() as well as loader options like joinedload(). Additionally, a “global” version of the option allows limiting criteria to be applied to particular entities in a query globally.

    References: #4472

  • [orm] [feature]

    The ORM Declarative system is now unified into the ORM itself, with new import spaces under sqlalchemy.orm and new kinds of mappings. Support for decorator-based mappings without using a base class, support for classical style-mapper() calls that have access to the declarative class registry for relationships, and full integration of Declarative with 3rd party class attribute systems like dataclasses and attrs is now supported.

    References: #5508

  • [orm] [feature]

    Eager loaders, such as joined loading, SELECT IN loading, etc., when configured on a mapper or via query options will now be invoked during the refresh on an expired object; in the case of selectinload and subqueryload, since the additional load is for a single object only, the “immediateload” scheme is used in these cases which resembles the single-parent query emitted by lazy loading.

    References: #1763

  • [orm] [feature]

    Added support for direct mapping of Python classes that are defined using the Python dataclasses decorator. Pull request courtesy Václav Klusák. The new feature integrates into new support at the Declarative level for systems such as dataclasses and attrs.

    References: #5027

  • [orm] [feature]

    Added “raiseload” feature for ORM mapped columns via defer.raiseload parameter on defer() and deferred(). This provides similar behavior for column-expression mapped attributes as the raiseload() option does for relationship mapped attributes. The change also includes some behavioral changes to deferred columns regarding expiration; see the migration notes for details.

    References: #4826

  • [orm] [usecase]

    The evaluator that takes place within the ORM bulk update and delete for synchronize_session=”evaluate” now supports the IN and NOT IN operators. Tuple IN is also supported.

    References: #1653

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Enhanced logic that tracks if relationships will be conflicting with each other when they write to the same column to include simple cases of two relationships that should have a “backref” between them. This means that if two relationships are not viewonly, are not linked with back_populates and are not otherwise in an inheriting sibling/overriding arrangement, and will populate the same foreign key column, a warning is emitted at mapper configuration time warning that a conflict may arise. A new parameter relationship.overlaps is added to suit those very rare cases where such an overlapping persistence arrangement may be unavoidable.

    References: #5171

  • [orm] [usecase]

    The ORM bulk update and delete operations, historically available via the Query.update() and Query.delete() methods as well as via the Update and Delete constructs for 2.0 style execution, will now automatically accommodate for the additional WHERE criteria needed for a single-table inheritance discriminator in order to limit the statement to rows referring to the specific subtype requested. The new with_loader_criteria() construct is also supported for with bulk update/delete operations.

    References: #3903, #5018

  • [orm] [usecase]

    Update relationship.sync_backref flag in a relationship to make it implicitly False in viewonly=True relationships, preventing synchronization events.

    References: #5237

  • [orm] [change]

    The condition where a pending object being flushed with an identity that already exists in the identity map has been adjusted to emit a warning, rather than throw a FlushError. The rationale is so that the flush will proceed and raise a IntegrityError instead, in the same way as if the existing object were not present in the identity map already. This helps with schemes that are using the IntegrityError as a means of catching whether or not a row already exists in the table.

    References: #4662

  • [orm] [change] [sql]

    A selection of Core and ORM query objects now perform much more of their Python computational tasks within the compile step, rather than at construction time. This is to support an upcoming caching model that will provide for caching of the compiled statement structure based on a cache key that is derived from the statement construct, which itself is expected to be newly constructed in Python code each time it is used. This means that the internal state of these objects may not be the same as it used to be, as well as that some but not all error raise scenarios for various kinds of argument validation will occur within the compilation / execution phase, rather than at statement construction time. See the migration notes linked below for complete details.

  • [orm] [change]

    The automatic uniquing of rows on the client side is turned off for the new 2.0 style of ORM querying. This improves both clarity and performance. However, uniquing of rows on the client side is generally necessary when using joined eager loading for collections, as there will be duplicates of the primary entity for each element in the collection because a join was used. This uniquing must now be manually enabled and can be achieved using the new Result.unique() modifier. To avoid silent failure, the ORM explicitly requires the method be called when the result of an ORM query in 2.0 style makes use of joined load collections. The newer selectinload() strategy is likely preferable for eager loading of collections in any case.

    References: #4395

  • [orm] [change]

    The ORM will now warn when asked to coerce a select() construct into a subquery implicitly. This occurs within places such as the Query.select_entity_from() and Query.select_from() methods as well as within the with_polymorphic() function. When a SelectBase (which is what’s produced by select()) or Query object is passed directly to these functions and others, the ORM is typically coercing them to be a subquery by calling the SelectBase.alias() method automatically (which is now superseded by the SelectBase.subquery() method). See the migration notes linked below for further details.

    References: #4617

  • [orm] [change]

    The “KeyedTuple” class returned by Query is now replaced with the Core Row class, which behaves in the same way as KeyedTuple. In SQLAlchemy 2.0, both Core and ORM will return result rows using the same Row object. In the interim, Core uses a backwards-compatibility class LegacyRow that maintains the former mapping/tuple hybrid behavior used by “RowProxy”.

    References: #4710

  • [orm] [performance]

    The bulk update and delete methods Query.update() and Query.delete(), as well as their 2.0-style counterparts, now make use of RETURNING when the “fetch” strategy is used in order to fetch the list of affected primary key identites, rather than emitting a separate SELECT, when the backend in use supports RETURNING. Additionally, the “fetch” strategy will in ordinary cases not expire the attributes that have been updated, and will instead apply the updated values directly in the same way that the “evaluate” strategy does, to avoid having to refresh the object. The “evaluate” strategy will also fall back to expiring attributes that were updated to a SQL expression that was unevaluable in Python.

  • [orm] [performance] [postgresql]

    Implemented support for the psycopg2 execute_values() extension within the ORM flush process via the enhancements to Core made in #5401, so that this extension is used both as a strategy to batch INSERT statements together as well as that RETURNING may now be used among multiple parameter sets to retrieve primary key values back in batch. This allows nearly all INSERT statements emitted by the ORM on behalf of PostgreSQL to be submitted in batch and also via the execute_values() extension which benches at five times faster than plain executemany() for this particular backend.

    References: #5263

  • [orm] [bug]

    A query that is against a mapped inheritance subclass which also uses Query.select_entity_from() or a similar technique in order to provide an existing subquery to SELECT from, will now raise an error if the given subquery returns entities that do not correspond to the given subclass, that is, they are sibling or superclasses in the same hierarchy. Previously, these would be returned without error. Additionally, if the inheritance mapping is a single-inheritance mapping, the given subquery must apply the appropriate filtering against the polymorphic discriminator column in order to avoid this error; previously, the Query would add this criteria to the outside query however this interferes with some kinds of query that return other kinds of entities as well.

    References: #5122

  • [orm] [bug]

    The internal attribute symbols NO_VALUE and NEVER_SET have been unified, as there was no meaningful difference between these two symbols, other than a few codepaths where they were differentiated in subtle and undocumented ways, these have been fixed.

    References: #4696

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug where a versioning column specified on a mapper against a select() construct where the version_id_col itself were against the underlying table would incur additional loads when accessed, even if the value were locally persisted by the flush. The actual fix is a result of the changes in #4617, by fact that a select() object no longer has a .c attribute and therefore does not confuse the mapper into thinking there’s an unknown column value present.

    References: #4194

  • [orm] [bug]

    An UnmappedInstanceError is now raised for InstrumentedAttribute if an instance is an unmapped object. Prior to this an AttributeError was raised. Pull request courtesy Ramon Williams.

    References: #3858

  • [orm] [bug]

    The Session object no longer initiates a SessionTransaction object immediately upon construction or after the previous transaction is closed; instead, “autobegin” logic now initiates the new SessionTransaction on demand when it is next needed. Rationale includes to remove reference cycles from a Session that has been closed out, as well as to remove the overhead incurred by the creation of SessionTransaction objects that are often discarded immediately. This change affects the behavior of the SessionEvents.after_transaction_create() hook in that the event will be emitted when the Session first requires a SessionTransaction be present, rather than whenever the Session were created or the previous SessionTransaction were closed. Interactions with the Engine and the database itself remain unaffected.

    References: #5074

  • [orm] [bug]

    Added new entity-targeting capabilities to the ORM query context help with the case where the Session is using a bind dictionary against mapped classes, rather than a single bind, and the Query is against a Core statement that was ultimately generated from a method such as Query.subquery(). First implemented using a deep search, the current approach leverages the unified select() construct to keep track of the first mapper that is part of the construct.

    References: #4829

  • [orm] [bug] [inheritance]

    An ArgumentError is now raised if both the selectable and flat parameters are set to True in with_polymorphic(). The selectable name is already aliased and applying flat=True overrides the selectable name with an anonymous name that would’ve previously caused the code to break. Pull request courtesy Ramon Williams.

    References: #4212

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed issue in polymorphic loading internals which would fall back to a more expensive, soon-to-be-deprecated form of result column lookup within certain unexpiration scenarios in conjunction with the use of “with_polymorphic”.

    References: #4718

  • [orm] [bug]

    An error is raised if any persistence-related “cascade” settings are made on a relationship() that also sets up viewonly=True. The “cascade” settings now default to non-persistence related settings only when viewonly is also set. This is the continuation from #4993 where this setting was changed to emit a warning in 1.3.

    References: #4994

  • [orm] [bug]

    Improved declarative inheritance scanning to not get tripped up when the same base class appears multiple times in the base inheritance list.

    References: #4699

  • [orm] [bug]

    Fixed bug in ORM versioning feature where assignment of an explicit version_id for a counter configured against a mapped selectable where version_id_col is against the underlying table would fail if the previous value were expired; this was due to the fact that the mapped attribute would not be configured with active_history=True.

    References: #4195

  • [orm] [bug]

    An exception is now raised if the ORM loads a row for a polymorphic instance that has a primary key but the discriminator column is NULL, as discriminator columns should not be null.

    References: #4836

  • [orm] [bug]

    Accessing a collection-oriented attribute on a newly created object no longer mutates __dict__, but still returns an empty collection as has always been the case. This allows collection-oriented attributes to work consistently in comparison to scalar attributes which return None, but also don’t mutate __dict__. In order to accommodate for the collection being mutated, the same empty collection is returned each time once initially created, and when it is mutated (e.g. an item appended, added, etc.) it is then moved into __dict__. This removes the last of mutating side-effects on read-only attribute access within the ORM.

    References: #4519

  • [orm] [bug]

    The refresh of an expired object will now trigger an autoflush if the list of expired attributes include one or more attributes that were explicitly expired or refreshed using the Session.expire() or Session.refresh() methods. This is an attempt to find a middle ground between the normal unexpiry of attributes that can happen in many cases where autoflush is not desirable, vs. the case where attributes are being explicitly expired or refreshed and it is possible that these attributes depend upon other pending state within the session that needs to be flushed. The two methods now also gain a new flag Session.expire.autoflush and Session.refresh.autoflush, defaulting to True; when set to False, this will disable the autoflush that occurs on unexpire for these attributes.

    References: #5226

  • [orm] [bug]

    The behavior of the relationship.cascade_backrefs flag will be reversed in 2.0 and set to False unconditionally, such that backrefs don’t cascade save-update operations from a forwards-assignment to a backwards assignment. A 2.0 deprecation warning is emitted when the parameter is left at its default of True at the point at which such a cascade operation actually takes place. The new behavior can be established as always by setting the flag to False on a specific relationship(), or more generally can be set up across the board by setting the the Session.future flag to True.

    References: #5150

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    The “slice index” feature used by Query as well as by the dynamic relationship loader will no longer accept negative indexes in SQLAlchemy 2.0. These operations do not work efficiently and load the entire collection in, which is both surprising and undesirable. These will warn in 1.4 unless the Session.future flag is set in which case they will raise IndexError.

    References: #5606

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    Calling the Query.instances() method without passing a QueryContext is deprecated. The original use case for this was that a Query could yield ORM objects when given only the entities to be selected as well as a DBAPI cursor object. However, for this to work correctly there is essential metadata that is passed from a SQLAlchemy ResultProxy that is derived from the mapped column expressions, which comes originally from the QueryContext. To retrieve ORM results from arbitrary SELECT statements, the Query.from_statement() method should be used.

    References: #4719

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    Using strings to represent relationship names in ORM operations such as Query.join(), as well as strings for all ORM attribute names in loader options like selectinload() is deprecated and will be removed in SQLAlchemy 2.0. The class-bound attribute should be passed instead. This provides much better specificity to the given method, allows for modifiers such as of_type(), and reduces internal complexity.

    Additionally, the aliased and from_joinpoint parameters to Query.join() are also deprecated. The aliased() construct now provides for a great deal of flexibility and capability and should be used directly.

    References: #4705, #5202

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    Deprecated logic in Query.distinct() that automatically adds columns in the ORDER BY clause to the columns clause; this will be removed in 2.0.

    References: #5134

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    Passing keyword arguments to methods such as Session.execute() to be passed into the Session.get_bind() method is deprecated; the new Session.execute.bind_arguments dictionary should be passed instead.

    References: #5573

  • [orm] [deprecated]

    The eagerload() and relation() were old aliases and are now deprecated. Use joinedload() and relationship() respectively.

    References: #5192

  • [orm] [removed]

    All long-deprecated “extension” classes have been removed, including MapperExtension, SessionExtension, PoolListener, ConnectionProxy, AttributeExtension. These classes have been deprecated since version 0.7 long superseded by the event listener system.

    References: #4638

  • [orm] [removed]

    Remove the deprecated loader options joinedload_all, subqueryload_all, lazyload_all, selectinload_all. The normal version with method chaining should be used in their place.

    References: #4642

  • [orm] [removed]

    Remove deprecated function comparable_property. Please refer to the hybrid extension. This also removes the function comparable_using in the declarative extension.

    Remove deprecated function compile_mappers. Please use configure_mappers()

    Remove deprecated method collection.linker. Please refer to the AttributeEvents.init_collection() and AttributeEvents.dispose_collection() event handlers.

    Remove deprecated method Session.prune and parameter Session.weak_identity_map. See the recipe at Session Referencing Behavior for an event-based approach to maintaining strong identity references. This change also removes the class StrongInstanceDict.

    Remove deprecated parameter mapper.order_by. Use Query.order_by() to determine the ordering of a result set.

    Remove deprecated parameter Session._enable_transaction_accounting.

    Remove deprecated parameter Session.is_modified.passive.

    References: #4643

engine

  • [engine] [feature]

    Implemented an all-new Result object that replaces the previous ResultProxy object. As implemented in Core, the subclass CursorResult features a compatible calling interface with the previous ResultProxy, and additionally adds a great amount of new functionality that can be applied to Core result sets as well as ORM result sets, which are now integrated into the same model. Result includes features such as column selection and rearrangement, improved fetchmany patterns, uniquing, as well as a variety of implementations that can be used to create database results from in-memory structures as well.

    References: #4395, #4959, #5087

  • [engine] [feature] [orm]

    SQLAlchemy now includes support for Python asyncio within both Core and ORM, using the included asyncio extension. The extension makes use of the greenlet library in order to adapt SQLAlchemy’s sync-oriented internals such that an asyncio interface that ultimately interacts with an asyncio database adapter is now feasible. The single driver supported at the moment is the asyncpg driver for PostgreSQL.

    References: #3414

  • [engine] [feature] [alchemy2]

    Implemented the create_engine.future parameter which enables forwards compatibility with SQLAlchemy 2. is used for forwards compatibility with SQLAlchemy 2. This engine features always-transactional behavior with autobegin.

    References: #4644

  • [engine] [feature] [pyodbc]

    Reworked the “setinputsizes()” set of dialect hooks to be correctly extensible for any arbitrary DBAPI, by allowing dialects individual hooks that may invoke cursor.setinputsizes() in the appropriate style for that DBAPI. In particular this is intended to support pyodbc’s style of usage which is fundamentally different from that of cx_Oracle. Added support for pyodbc.

    References: #5649

  • [engine] [feature]

    Added new reflection method Inspector.get_sequence_names() which returns all the sequences defined and Inspector.has_sequence() to check if a particular sequence exits. Support for this method has been added to the backend that support Sequence: PostgreSQL, Oracle and MariaDB >= 10.3.

    References: #2056

  • [engine] [feature]

    The Table.autoload_with parameter now accepts an Inspector object directly, as well as any Engine or Connection as was the case before.

    References: #4755

  • [engine] [change]

    The RowProxy class is no longer a “proxy” object, and is instead directly populated with the post-processed contents of the DBAPI row tuple upon construction. Now named Row, the mechanics of how the Python-level value processors have been simplified, particularly as it impacts the format of the C code, so that a DBAPI row is processed into a result tuple up front. The object returned by the ResultProxy is now the LegacyRow subclass, which maintains mapping/tuple hybrid behavior, however the base Row class now behaves more fully like a named tuple.

    References: #4710

  • [engine] [performance]

    The pool “pre-ping” feature has been refined to not invoke for a DBAPI connection that was just opened in the same checkout operation. pre ping only applies to a DBAPI connection that’s been checked into the pool and is being checked out again.

    References: #4524

  • [engine] [performance] [change] [py3k]

    Disabled the “unicode returns” check that runs on dialect startup when running under Python 3, which for many years has occurred in order to test the current DBAPI’s behavior for whether or not it returns Python Unicode or Py2K strings for the VARCHAR and NVARCHAR datatypes. The check still occurs by default under Python 2, however the mechanism to test the behavior will be removed in SQLAlchemy 2.0 when Python 2 support is also removed.

    This logic was very effective when it was needed, however now that Python 3 is standard, all DBAPIs are expected to return Python 3 strings for character datatypes. In the unlikely case that a third party DBAPI does not support this, the conversion logic within String is still available and the third party dialect may specify this in its upfront dialect flags by setting the dialect level flag returns_unicode_strings to one of String.RETURNS_CONDITIONAL or String.RETURNS_BYTES, both of which will enable Unicode conversion even under Python 3.

    References: #5315

  • [engine] [bug]

    Revised the Connection.execution_options.schema_translate_map feature such that the processing of the SQL statement to receive a specific schema name occurs within the execution phase of the statement, rather than at the compile phase. This is to support the statement being efficiently cached. Previously, the current schema being rendered into the statement for a particular run would be considered as part of the cache key itself, meaning that for a run against hundreds of schemas, there would be hundreds of cache keys, rendering the cache much less performant. The new behavior is that the rendering is done in a similar manner as the “post compile” rendering added in 1.4 as part of #4645, #4808.

    References: #5004

  • [engine] [bug]

    The Connection object will now not clear a rolled-back transaction until the outermost transaction is explicitly rolled back. This is essentially the same behavior that the ORM Session has had for a long time, where an explicit call to .rollback() on all enclosing transactions is required for the transaction to logically clear, even though the DBAPI-level transaction has already been rolled back. The new behavior helps with situations such as the “ORM rollback test suite” pattern where the test suite rolls the transaction back within the ORM scope, but the test harness which seeks to control the scope of the transaction externally does not expect a new transaction to start implicitly.

    References: #4712

  • [engine] [bug]

    Adjusted the dialect initialization process such that the Dialect.on_connect() is not called a second time on the first connection. The hook is called first, then the Dialect.initialize() is called if that connection is the first for that dialect, then no more events are called. This eliminates the two calls to the “on_connect” function which can produce very difficult debugging situations.

    References: #5497

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    The URL object is now an immutable named tuple. To modify a URL object, use the URL.set() method to produce a new URL object.

    See also

    The URL object is now immutable - notes on migration

    References: #5526

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    The MetaData.bind argument as well as the overall concept of “bound metadata” is deprecated in SQLAlchemy 1.4 and will be removed in SQLAlchemy 2.0. The parameter as well as related functions now emit a RemovedIn20Warning when SQLAlchemy 2.0 Deprecations Mode is in use.

    References: #4634

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    The server_side_cursors engine-wide parameter is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. For unbuffered cursors, the Connection.execution_options.stream_results execution option should be used on a per-execution basis.

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    The Connection.connect() method is deprecated as is the concept of “connection branching”, which copies a Connection into a new one that has a no-op “.close()” method. This pattern is oriented around the “connectionless execution” concept which is also being removed in 2.0.

    References: #5131

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    The case_sensitive flag on create_engine() is deprecated; this flag was part of the transition of the result row object to allow case sensitive column matching as the default, while providing backwards compatibility for the former matching method. All string access for a row should be assumed to be case sensitive just like any other Python mapping.

    References: #4878

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    ”Implicit autocommit”, which is the COMMIT that occurs when a DML or DDL statement is emitted on a connection, is deprecated and won’t be part of SQLAlchemy 2.0. A 2.0-style warning is emitted when autocommit takes effect, so that the calling code may be adjusted to use an explicit transaction.

    As part of this change, DDL methods such as MetaData.create_all() when used against an Engine will run the operation in a BEGIN block if one is not started already.

    References: #4846

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    Deprecated the behavior by which a Column can be used as the key in a result set row lookup, when that Column is not part of the SQL selectable that is being selected; that is, it is only matched on name. A deprecation warning is now emitted for this case. Various ORM use cases, such as those involving text() constructs, have been improved so that this fallback logic is avoided in most cases.

    References: #4877

  • [engine] [deprecated]

    Deprecated remaining engine-level introspection and utility methods including Engine.run_callable(), Engine.transaction(), Engine.table_names(), Engine.has_table(). The utility methods are superseded by modern context-manager patterns, and the table introspection tasks are suited by the Inspector object.

    References: #4755

  • [engine] [removed]

    Remove deprecated method get_primary_keys in the Dialect and Inspector classes. Please refer to the Dialect.get_pk_constraint() and Inspector.get_primary_keys() methods.

    Remove deprecated event dbapi_error and the method ConnectionEvents.dbapi_error. Please refer to the ConnectionEvents.handle_error() event. This change also removes the attributes ExecutionContext.is_disconnect and ExecutionContext.exception.

    References: #4643

  • [engine] [removed]

    The internal dialect method Dialect.reflecttable has been removed. A review of third party dialects has not found any making use of this method, as it was already documented as one that should not be used by external dialects. Additionally, the private Engine._run_visitor method is also removed.

    References: #4755

  • [engine] [removed]

    The long-deprecated Inspector.get_table_names.order_by parameter has been removed.

    References: #4755

  • [engine] [renamed]

    The Inspector.reflecttable() was renamed to Inspector.reflect_table().

    References: #5244

sql

  • [sql] [feature]

    Added “from linting” as a built-in feature to the SQL compiler. This allows the compiler to maintain graph of all the FROM clauses in a particular SELECT statement, linked by criteria in either the WHERE or in JOIN clauses that link these FROM clauses together. If any two FROM clauses have no path between them, a warning is emitted that the query may be producing a cartesian product. As the Core expression language as well as the ORM are built on an “implicit FROMs” model where a particular FROM clause is automatically added if any part of the query refers to it, it is easy for this to happen inadvertently and it is hoped that the new feature helps with this issue.

    References: #4737

  • [sql] [feature] [mssql] [oracle]

    Added new “post compile parameters” feature. This feature allows a bindparam() construct to have its value rendered into the SQL string before being passed to the DBAPI driver, but after the compilation step, using the “literal render” feature of the compiler. The immediate rationale for this feature is to support LIMIT/OFFSET schemes that don’t work or perform well as bound parameters handled by the database driver, while still allowing for SQLAlchemy SQL constructs to be cacheable in their compiled form. The immediate targets for the new feature are the “TOP N” clause used by SQL Server (and Sybase) which does not support a bound parameter, as well as the “ROWNUM” and optional “FIRST_ROWS()” schemes used by the Oracle dialect, the former of which has been known to perform better without bound parameters and the latter of which does not support a bound parameter. The feature builds upon the mechanisms first developed to support “expanding” parameters for IN expressions. As part of this feature, the Oracle use_binds_for_limits feature is turned on unconditionally and this flag is now deprecated.

    References: #4808

  • [sql] [feature]

    Add support for regular expression on supported backends. Two operations have been defined:

    Supported backends include SQLite, PostgreSQL, MySQL / MariaDB, and Oracle.

    References: #1390

  • [sql] [feature]

    The select() construct and related constructs now allow for duplication of column labels and columns themselves in the columns clause, mirroring exactly how column expressions were passed in. This allows the tuples returned by an executed result to match what was SELECTed for in the first place, which is how the ORM Query works, so this establishes better cross-compatibility between the two constructs. Additionally, it allows column-positioning-sensitive structures such as UNIONs (i.e. _selectable.CompoundSelect) to be more intuitively constructed in those cases where a particular column might appear in more than one place. To support this change, the ColumnCollection has been revised to support duplicate columns as well as to allow integer index access.

    References: #4753

  • [sql] [feature]

    Enhanced the disambiguating labels feature of the select() construct such that when a select statement is used in a subquery, repeated column names from different tables are now automatically labeled with a unique label name, without the need to use the full “apply_labels()” feature that combines tablename plus column name. The disambiguated labels are available as plain string keys in the .c collection of the subquery, and most importantly the feature allows an ORM aliased() construct against the combination of an entity and an arbitrary subquery to work correctly, targeting the correct columns despite same-named columns in the source tables, without the need for an “apply labels” warning.

    See also

    Selecting from the query itself as a subquery, e.g. “from_self()” - Illustrates the new disambiguation feature as part of a strategy to migrate away from the Query.from_self() method.

    References: #5221

  • [sql] [feature]

    The “expanding IN” feature, which generates IN expressions at query execution time which are based on the particular parameters associated with the statement execution, is now used for all IN expressions made against lists of literal values. This allows IN expressions to be fully cacheable independently of the list of values being passed, and also includes support for empty lists. For any scenario where the IN expression contains non-literal SQL expressions, the old behavior of pre-rendering for each position in the IN is maintained. The change also completes support for expanding IN with tuples, where previously type-specific bind processors weren’t taking effect.

    References: #4645

  • [sql] [feature]

    Along with the new transparent statement caching feature introduced as part of #4369, a new feature intended to decrease the Python overhead of creating statements is added, allowing lambdas to be used when indicating arguments being passed to a statement object such as select(), Query(), update(), etc., as well as allowing the construction of full statements within lambdas in a similar manner as that of the “baked query” system. The rationale of using lambdas is adapted from that of the “baked query” approach which uses lambdas to encapsulate any amount of Python code into a callable that only needs to be called when the statement is first constructed into a string. The new feature however is more sophisticated in that Python literal values that would be passed as parameters are automatically extracted, so that there is no longer a need to use bindparam() objects with such queries. Use of the feature is optional and can be used to as small or as great a degree as is desired, while still allowing statements to be fully cacheable.

    References: #5380

  • [sql] [usecase]

    The Index.create() and Index.drop() methods now have a parameter Index.create.checkfirst, in the same way as that of Table and Sequence, which when enabled will cause the operation to detect if the index exists (or not) before performing a create or drop operation.

    References: #527

  • [sql] [usecase]

    The true() and false() operators may now be applied as the “onclause” of a join() on a backend that does not support “native boolean” expressions, e.g. Oracle or SQL Server, and the expression will render as “1=1” for true and “1=0” false. This is the behavior that was introduced many years ago in #2804 for and/or expressions.

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Change the method __str of ColumnCollection to avoid confusing it with a python list of string.

    References: #5191

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Add support to FETCH {FIRST | NEXT} [ count ] {ROW | ROWS} {ONLY | WITH TIES} in the select for the supported backends, currently PostgreSQL, Oracle and MSSQL.

    References: #5576

  • [sql] [usecase]

    Additional logic has been added such that certain SQL expressions which typically wrap a single database column will use the name of that column as their “anonymous label” name within a SELECT statement, potentially making key-based lookups in result tuples more intuitive. The primary example of this is that of a CAST expression, e.g. CAST(table.colname AS INTEGER), which will export its default name as “colname”, rather than the usual “anon_1” label, that is, CAST(table.colname AS INTEGER) AS colname. If the inner expression doesn’t have a name, then the previous “anonymous label” logic is used. When using SELECT statements that make use of Select.apply_labels(), such as those emitted by the ORM, the labeling logic will produce <tablename>_<inner column name> in the same was as if the column were named alone. The logic applies right now to the cast() and type_coerce() constructs as well as some single-element boolean expressions.

    References: #4449

  • [sql] [change]

    The “clause coercion” system, which is SQLAlchemy Core’s system of receiving arguments and resolving them into ClauseElement structures in order to build up SQL expression objects, has been rewritten from a series of ad-hoc functions to a fully consistent class-based system. This change is internal and should have no impact on end users other than more specific error messages when the wrong kind of argument is passed to an expression object, however the change is part of a larger set of changes involving the role and behavior of select() objects.

    References: #4617

  • [sql] [change]

    Added a core Values object that enables a VALUES construct to be used in the FROM clause of an SQL statement for databases that support it (mainly PostgreSQL and SQL Server).

    References: #4868

  • [sql] [change]

    The select() construct is moving towards a new calling form that is select(col1, col2, col3, ..), with all other keyword arguments removed, as these are all suited using generative methods. The single list of column or table arguments passed to select() is still accepted, however is no longer necessary if expressions are passed in a simple positional style. Other keyword arguments are disallowed when this form is used.

    References: #5284

  • [sql] [change]

    As part of the SQLAlchemy 2.0 migration project, a conceptual change has been made to the role of the SelectBase class hierarchy, which is the root of all “SELECT” statement constructs, in that they no longer serve directly as FROM clauses, that is, they no longer subclass FromClause. For end users, the change mostly means that any placement of a select() construct in the FROM clause of another select() requires first that it be wrapped in a subquery first, which historically is through the use of the SelectBase.alias() method, and is now also available through the use of SelectBase.subquery(). This was usually a requirement in any case since several databases don’t accept unnamed SELECT subqueries in their FROM clause in any case.

    References: #4617

  • [sql] [change]

    Added a new Core class Subquery, which takes the place of Alias when creating named subqueries against a SelectBase object. Subquery acts in the same way as Alias and is produced from the SelectBase.subquery() method; for ease of use and backwards compatibility, the SelectBase.alias() method is synonymous with this new method.

    References: #4617

  • [sql] [performance]

    An all-encompassing reorganization and refactoring of Core and ORM internals now allows all Core and ORM statements within the areas of DQL (e.g. SELECTs) and DML (e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) to allow their SQL compilation as well as the construction of result-fetching metadata to be fully cached in most cases. This effectively provides a transparent and generalized version of what the “Baked Query” extension has offered for the ORM in past versions. The new feature can calculate the cache key for any given SQL construction based on the string that it would ultimately produce for a given dialect, allowing functions that compose the equivalent select(), Query(), insert(), update() or delete() object each time to have that statement cached after it’s generated the first time.

    The feature is enabled transparently but includes some new programming paradigms that may be employed to make the caching even more efficient.

    References: #4639

  • [sql] [bug]

    Fixed issue where when constructing constraints from ORM-bound columns, primarily ForeignKey objects but also UniqueConstraint, CheckConstraint and others, the ORM-level InstrumentedAttribute is discarded entirely, and all ORM-level annotations from the columns are removed; this is so that the constraints are still fully pickleable without the ORM-level entities being pulled in. These annotations are not necessary to be present at the schema/metadata level.

    References: #5001

  • [sql] [bug]

    Registered function names based on GenericFunction are now retrieved in a case-insensitive fashion in all cases, removing the deprecation logic from 1.3 which temporarily allowed multiple GenericFunction objects to exist with differing cases. A GenericFunction that replaces another on the same name whether or not it’s case sensitive emits a warning before replacing the object.

    References: #4569, #4649

  • [sql] [bug]

    Creating an and_() or or_() construct with no arguments or empty *args will now emit a deprecation warning, as the SQL produced is a no-op (i.e. it renders as a blank string). This behavior is considered to be non-intuitive, so for empty or possibly empty and_() or or_() constructs, an appropriate default boolean should be included, such as and_(True, *args) or or_(False, *args). As has been the case for many major versions of SQLAlchemy, these particular boolean values will not render if the *args portion is non-empty.

    References: #5054

  • [sql] [bug]

    Improved the tuple_() construct such that it behaves predictably when used in a columns-clause context. The SQL tuple is not supported as a “SELECT” columns clause element on most backends; on those that do (PostgreSQL, not surprisingly), the Python DBAPI does not have a “nested type” concept so there are still challenges in fetching rows for such an object. Use of tuple_() in a select() or Query will now raise a CompileError at the point at which the tuple_() object is seen as presenting itself for fetching rows (i.e., if the tuple is in the columns clause of a subquery, no error is raised). For ORM use,the Bundle object is an explicit directive that a series of columns should be returned as a sub-tuple per row and is suggested by the error message. Additionally ,the tuple will now render with parenthesis in all contexts. Previously, the parenthesization would not render in a columns context leading to non-defined behavior.

    References: #5127

  • [sql] [bug] [postgresql]

    Improved support for column names that contain percent signs in the string, including repaired issues involving anonymous labels that also embedded a column name with a percent sign in it, as well as re-established support for bound parameter names with percent signs embedded on the psycopg2 dialect, using a late-escaping process similar to that used by the cx_Oracle dialect.

    References: #5653

  • [sql] [bug]

    Custom functions that are created as subclasses of FunctionElement will now generate an “anonymous label” based on the “name” of the function just like any other Function object, e.g. "SELECT myfunc() AS myfunc_1". While SELECT statements no longer require labels in order for the result proxy object to function, the ORM still targets columns in rows by using objects as mapping keys, which works more reliably when the column expressions have distinct names. In any case, the behavior is now made consistent between functions generated by func and those generated as custom FunctionElement objects.

    References: #4887

  • [sql] [bug]

    Reworked the ClauseElement.compare() methods in terms of a new visitor-based approach, and additionally added test coverage ensuring that all ClauseElement subclasses can be accurately compared against each other in terms of structure. Structural comparison capability is used to a small degree within the ORM currently, however it also may form the basis for new caching features.

    References: #4336

  • [sql] [bug]

    Deprecate usage of DISTINCT ON in dialect other than PostgreSQL. Deprecate old usage of string distinct in MySQL dialect

    References: #4002

  • [sql] [bug]

    The ORDER BY clause of a _selectable.CompoundSelect, e.g. UNION, EXCEPT, etc. will not render the table name associated with a given column when applying CompoundSelect.order_by() in terms of a Table - bound column. Most databases require that the names in the ORDER BY clause be expressed as label names only which are matched to names in the first SELECT statement. The change is related to #4617 in that a previous workaround was to refer to the .c attribute of the _selectable.CompoundSelect in order to get at a column that has no table name. As the subquery is now named, this change allows both the workaround to continue to work, as well as allows table-bound columns as well as the CompoundSelect.selected_columns collections to be usable in the CompoundSelect.order_by() method.

    References: #4617

  • [sql] [bug]

    The Join construct no longer considers the “onclause” as a source of additional FROM objects to be omitted from the FROM list of an enclosing Select object as standalone FROM objects. This applies to an ON clause that includes a reference to another FROM object outside the JOIN; while this is usually not correct from a SQL perspective, it’s also incorrect for it to be omitted, and the behavioral change makes the Select / Join behave a bit more intuitively.

    References: #4621

  • [sql] [deprecated]

    The Join.alias() method is deprecated and will be removed in SQLAlchemy 2.0. An explicit select + subquery, or aliasing of the inner tables, should be used instead.

    References: #5010

  • [sql] [deprecated]

    The Table class now raises a deprecation warning when columns with the same name are defined. To replace a column a new parameter Table.append_column.replace_existing was added to the Table.append_column() method.

    The ColumnCollection.contains_column() will now raises an error when called with a string, suggesting the caller to use in instead.

  • [sql] [removed]

    The “threadlocal” execution strategy, deprecated in 1.3, has been removed for 1.4, as well as the concept of “engine strategies” and the Engine.contextual_connect method. The “strategy=’mock’” keyword argument is still accepted for now with a deprecation warning; use create_mock_engine() instead for this use case.

    See also

    “threadlocal” engine strategy deprecated - from the 1.3 migration notes which discusses the rationale for deprecation.

    References: #4632

  • [sql] [removed]

    Removed the sqlalchemy.sql.visitors.iterate_depthfirst and sqlalchemy.sql.visitors.traverse_depthfirst functions. These functions were unused by any part of SQLAlchemy. The iterate() and traverse() functions are commonly used for these functions. Also removed unused options from the remaining functions including “column_collections”, “schema_visitor”.

  • [sql] [removed]

    Removed the concept of a bound engine from the Compiler object, and removed the .execute() and .scalar() methods from Compiler. These were essentially forgotten methods from over a decade ago and had no practical use, and it’s not appropriate for the Compiler object itself to be maintaining a reference to an Engine.

  • [sql] [removed]

    Remove deprecated methods Compiled.compile, ClauseElement.__and__ and ClauseElement.__or__ and attribute Over.func.

    Remove deprecated FromClause.count method. Please use the count function available from the func namespace.

    References: #4643

  • [sql] [removed]

    Remove deprecated parameters text.bindparams and text.typemap. Please refer to the TextClause.bindparams() and TextClause.columns() methods.

    Remove deprecated parameter Table.useexisting. Please use Table.extend_existing.

    References: #4643

  • [sql] [renamed]

    Table parameter mustexist has been renamed to Table.must_exist and will now warn when used.

  • [sql] [renamed]

    The SelectBase.as_scalar() and Query.as_scalar() methods have been renamed to SelectBase.scalar_subquery() and Query.scalar_subquery(), respectively. The old names continue to exist within 1.4 series with a deprecation warning. In addition, the implicit coercion of SelectBase, Alias, and other SELECT oriented objects into scalar subqueries when evaluated in a column context is also deprecated, and emits a warning that the SelectBase.scalar_subquery() method should be called explicitly. This warning will in a later major release become an error, however the message will always be clear when SelectBase.scalar_subquery() needs to be invoked. The latter part of the change is for clarity and to reduce the implicit decisionmaking by the query coercion system. The Subquery.as_scalar() method, which was previously Alias.as_scalar, is also deprecated; .scalar_subquery() should be invoked directly from ` select() object or Query object.

    This change is part of the larger change to convert select() objects to no longer be directly part of the “from clause” class hierarchy, which also includes an overhaul of the clause coercion system.

    References: #4617

  • [sql] [renamed]

    Several operators are renamed to achieve more consistent naming across SQLAlchemy.

    The operator changes are:

    • isfalse is now is_false

    • isnot_distinct_from is now is_not_distinct_from

    • istrue is now is_true

    • notbetween is now not_between

    • notcontains is now not_contains

    • notendswith is now not_endswith

    • notilike is now not_ilike

    • notlike is now not_like

    • notmatch is now not_match

    • notstartswith is now not_startswith

    • nullsfirst is now nulls_first

    • nullslast is now nulls_last

    • isnot is now is_not

    • not_in_ is now not_in

    Because these are core operators, the internal migration strategy for this change is to support legacy terms for an extended period of time – if not indefinitely – but update all documentation, tutorials, and internal usage to the new terms. The new terms are used to define the functions, and the legacy terms have been deprecated into aliases of the new terms.

    References: #5429, #5435

  • [sql] [postgresql]

    Allow specifying the data type when creating a Sequence in PostgreSQL by using the parameter Sequence.data_type.

    References: #5498

  • [sql] [reflection]

    The “NO ACTION” keyword for foreign key “ON UPDATE” is now considered to be the default cascade for a foreign key on all supporting backends (SQlite, MySQL, PostgreSQL) and when detected is not included in the reflection dictionary; this is already the behavior for PostgreSQL and MySQL for all previous SQLAlchemy versions in any case. The “RESTRICT” keyword is positively stored when detected; PostgreSQL does report on this keyword, and MySQL as of version 8.0 does as well. On earlier MySQL versions, it is not reported by the database.

    References: #4741

  • [sql] [reflection]

    Added support for reflecting “identity” columns, which are now returned as part of the structure returned by Inspector.get_columns(). When reflecting full Table objects, identity columns will be represented using the Identity construct. Currently the supported backends are PostgreSQL >= 10, Oracle >= 12 and MSSQL (with different syntax and a subset of functionalities).

    References: #5324, #5527

schema

  • [schema] [change]

    The Enum.create_constraint and Boolean.create_constraint parameters now default to False, indicating when a so-called “non-native” version of these two datatypes is created, a CHECK constraint will not be generated by default. These CHECK constraints present schema-management maintenance complexities that should be opted in to, rather than being turned on by default.

    References: #5367

  • [schema] [bug]

    Cleaned up the internal str() for datatypes so that all types produce a string representation without any dialect present, including that it works for third-party dialect types without that dialect being present. The string representation defaults to being the UPPERCASE name of that type with nothing else.

    References: #4262

  • [schema] [removed]

    Remove deprecated class Binary. Please use LargeBinary.

    References: #4643

  • [schema] [renamed]

    Renamed the Table.tometadata() method to Table.to_metadata(). The previous name remains with a deprecation warning.

    References: #5413

  • [schema] [sql]

    Added the Identity construct that can be used to configure identity columns rendered with GENERATED { ALWAYS | BY DEFAULT } AS IDENTITY. Currently the supported backends are PostgreSQL >= 10, Oracle >= 12 and MSSQL (with different syntax and a subset of functionalities).

    References: #5324, #5360, #5362

extensions

  • [extensions] [usecase]

    Custom compiler constructs created using the sqlalchemy.ext.compiled extension will automatically add contextual information to the compiler when a custom construct is interpreted as an element in the columns clause of a SELECT statement, such that the custom element will be targetable as a key in result row mappings, which is the kind of targeting that the ORM uses in order to match column elements into result tuples.

    References: #4887

  • [extensions] [change]

    Added new parameter AutomapBase.prepare.autoload_with which supersedes AutomapBase.prepare.reflect and AutomapBase.prepare.engine.

    References: #5142

postgresql

  • [postgresql] [usecase]

    Added support for PostgreSQL “readonly” and “deferrable” flags for all of psycopg2, asyncpg and pg8000 dialects. This takes advantage of a newly generalized version of the “isolation level” API to support other kinds of session attributes set via execution options that are reliably reset when connections are returned to the connection pool.

    References: #5549

  • [postgresql] [usecase]

    The maximum buffer size for the BufferedRowResultProxy, which is used by dialects such as PostgreSQL when stream_results=True, can now be set to a number greater than 1000 and the buffer will grow to that size. Previously, the buffer would not go beyond 1000 even if the value were set larger. The growth of the buffer is also now based on a simple multiplying factor currently set to 5. Pull request courtesy Soumaya Mauthoor.

    References: #4914

  • [postgresql] [change]

    When using the psycopg2 dialect for PostgreSQL, psycopg2 minimum version is set at 2.7. The psycopg2 dialect relies upon many features of psycopg2 released in the past few years, so to simplify the dialect, version 2.7, released in March, 2017 is now the minimum version required.

  • [postgresql] [performance]

    The psycopg2 dialect now defaults to using the very performant execute_values() psycopg2 extension for compiled INSERT statements, and also implements RETURNING support when this extension is used. This allows INSERT statements that even include an autoincremented SERIAL or IDENTITY value to run very fast while still being able to return the newly generated primary key values. The ORM will then integrate this new feature in a separate change.

    See also

    psycopg2 dialect features “execute_values” with RETURNING for INSERT statements by default - full list of changes regarding the executemany_mode parameter.

    References: #5401

  • [postgresql] [bug]

    The pg8000 dialect has been revised and modernized for the most recent version of the pg8000 driver for PostgreSQL. Pull request courtesy Tony Locke. Note that this necessarily pins pg8000 at 1.16.6 or greater, which no longer has Python 2 support. Python 2 users who require pg8000 should ensure their requirements are pinned at SQLAlchemy<1.4.

  • [postgresql] [deprecated]

    The pygresql and py-postgresql dialects are deprecated.

    References: #5189

  • [postgresql] [removed]

    Remove support for deprecated engine URLs of the form postgres://; this has emitted a warning for many years and projects should be using postgresql://.

    References: #4643

mysql

  • [mysql] [feature]

    Added support for MariaDB Connector/Python to the mysql dialect. Original pull request courtesy Georg Richter.

    References: #5459

  • [mysql] [usecase]

    Added a new dialect token “mariadb” that may be used in place of “mysql” in the create_engine() URL. This will deliver a MariaDB dialect subclass of the MySQLDialect in use that forces the “is_mariadb” flag to True. The dialect will raise an error if a server version string that does not indicate MariaDB in use is received. This is useful for MariaDB-specific testing scenarios as well as to support applications that are hardcoding to MariaDB-only concepts. As MariaDB and MySQL featuresets and usage patterns continue to diverge, this pattern may become more prominent.

    References: #5496

  • [mysql] [usecase]

    Added support for use of the Sequence construct with MariaDB 10.3 and greater, as this is now supported by this database. The construct integrates with the Table object in the same way that it does for other databases like PostgreSQL and Oracle; if is present on the integer primary key “autoincrement” column, it is used to generate defaults. For backwards compatibility, to support a Table that has a Sequence on it to support sequence only databases like Oracle, while still not having the sequence fire off for MariaDB, the optional=True flag should be set, which indicates the sequence should only be used to generate the primary key if the target database offers no other option.

    References: #4976

  • [mysql] [bug]

    The MySQL and MariaDB dialects now query from the information_schema.tables system view in order to determine if a particular table exists or not. Previously, the “DESCRIBE” command was used with an exception catch to detect non-existent, which would have the undesirable effect of emitting a ROLLBACK on the connection. There appeared to be legacy encoding issues which prevented the use of “SHOW TABLES”, for this, but as MySQL support is now at 5.0.2 or above due to #4189, the information_schema tables are now available in all cases.

  • [mysql] [bug]

    The “skip_locked” keyword used with with_for_update() will render “SKIP LOCKED” on all MySQL backends, meaning it will fail for MySQL less than version 8 and on current MariaDB backends. This is because those backends do not support “SKIP LOCKED” or any equivalent, so this error should not be silently ignored. This is upgraded from a warning in the 1.3 series.

    References: #5568

  • [mysql] [bug]

    MySQL dialect’s server_version_info tuple is now all numeric. String tokens like “MariaDB” are no longer present so that numeric comparison works in all cases. The .is_mariadb flag on the dialect should be consulted for whether or not mariadb was detected. Additionally removed structures meant to support extremely old MySQL versions 3.x and 4.x; the minimum MySQL version supported is now version 5.0.2.

    References: #4189

  • [mysql] [deprecated]

    The OurSQL dialect is deprecated.

    References: #5189

  • [mysql] [removed]

    Remove deprecated dialect mysql+gaerdbms that has been deprecated since version 1.0. Use the MySQLdb dialect directly.

    Remove deprecated parameter quoting from ENUM and SET in the mysql dialect. The values passed to the enum or the set are quoted by SQLAlchemy when needed automatically.

    References: #4643

sqlite

mssql

  • [mssql] [feature] [sql]

    Added support for the JSON datatype on the SQL Server dialect using the JSON implementation, which implements SQL Server’s JSON functionality against the NVARCHAR(max) datatype as per SQL Server documentation. Implementation courtesy Gord Thompson.

    References: #4384

  • [mssql] [feature]

    Added support for “CREATE SEQUENCE” and full Sequence support for Microsoft SQL Server. This removes the deprecated feature of using Sequence objects to manipulate IDENTITY characteristics which should now be performed using mssql_identity_start and mssql_identity_increment as documented at Auto Increment Behavior / IDENTITY Columns. The change includes a new parameter Sequence.data_type to accommodate SQL Server’s choice of datatype, which for that backend includes INTEGER, BIGINT, and DECIMAL(n, 0). The default starting value for SQL Server’s version of Sequence has been set at 1; this default is now emitted within the CREATE SEQUENCE DDL for all backends.

    References: #4235, #4633

  • [mssql] [usecase] [postgresql] [reflection] [schema]

    Improved support for covering indexes (with INCLUDE columns). Added the ability for postgresql to render CREATE INDEX statements with an INCLUDE clause from Core. Index reflection also report INCLUDE columns separately for both mssql and postgresql (11+).

    References: #4458

  • [mssql] [usecase] [postgresql]

    Added support for inspection / reflection of partial indexes / filtered indexes, i.e. those which use the mssql_where or postgresql_where parameters, with Index. The entry is both part of the dictionary returned by Inspector.get_indexes() as well as part of a reflected Index construct that was reflected. Pull request courtesy Ramon Williams.

    References: #4966

  • [mssql] [usecase] [reflection]

    Added support for reflection of temporary tables with the SQL Server dialect. Table names that are prefixed by a pound sign “#” are now introspected from the MSSQL “tempdb” system catalog.

    References: #5506

  • [mssql] [change]

    SQL Server OFFSET and FETCH keywords are now used for limit/offset, rather than using a window function, for SQL Server versions 11 and higher. TOP is still used for a query that features only LIMIT. Pull request courtesy Elkin.

    References: #5084

  • [mssql] [bug] [schema]

    Fixed an issue where sqlalchemy.engine.reflection.has_table() always returned False for temporary tables.

    References: #5597

  • [mssql] [bug]

    Fixed the base class of the DATETIMEOFFSET datatype to be based on the DateTime class hierarchy, as this is a datetime-holding datatype.

    References: #4980

  • [mssql] [deprecated]

    The adodbapi and mxODBC dialects are deprecated.

    References: #5189

  • [mssql]

    The mssql dialect will assume that at least MSSQL 2005 is used. There is no hard exception raised if a previous version is detected, but operations may fail for older versions.

  • [mssql] [reflection]

    As part of the support for reflecting Identity objects, the method Inspector.get_columns() no longer returns mssql_identity_start and mssql_identity_increment as part of the dialect_options. Use the information in the identity key instead.

    References: #5527

  • [mssql] [engine]

    Deprecated the legacy_schema_aliasing parameter to sqlalchemy.create_engine(). This is a long-outdated parameter that has defaulted to False since version 1.1.

    References: #4809

oracle

  • [oracle] [usecase]

    The max_identifier_length for the Oracle dialect is now 128 characters by default, unless compatibility version less than 12.2 upon first connect, in which case the legacy length of 30 characters is used. This is a continuation of the issue as committed to the 1.3 series which adds max identifier length detection upon first connect as well as warns for the change in Oracle server.

    See also

    Max Identifier Lengths - in the Oracle dialect documentation

    References: #4857

  • [oracle] [change]

    The LIMIT / OFFSET scheme used in Oracle now makes use of named subqueries rather than unnamed subqueries when it transparently rewrites a SELECT statement to one that uses a subquery that includes ROWNUM. The change is part of a larger change where unnamed subqueries are no longer directly supported by Core, as well as to modernize the internal use of the select() construct within the Oracle dialect.

  • [oracle] [bug]

    Correctly render Sequence and Identity column options nominvalue and nomaxvalue as NOMAXVALUE` and ``NOMINVALUE on oracle database.

  • [oracle] [bug]

    The INTERVAL class of the Oracle dialect is now correctly a subclass of the abstract version of Interval as well as the correct “emulated” base class, which allows for correct behavior under both native and non-native modes; previously it was only based on TypeEngine.

    References: #4971

firebird

  • [firebird] [deprecated]

    The Firebird dialect is deprecated, as there is now a 3rd party dialect that supports this database.

    References: #5189

misc

  • [misc] [deprecated]

    The Sybase dialect is deprecated.

    References: #5189

Previous: Migrating to SQLAlchemy 2.0 Next: 1.3 Changelog